💊 Chemical information
Pharmacopoeias.In Chin., Eur., Int., Jpn, US, and Viet. US also includes Sterile Water for Injection, Sterile Water for Inhalation, Sterile Water for Irrigation, and Bacteriostatic Water for Injection.
Ph. Eur. 6.2(Water for Injections). It is water for the preparation of medicines for parenteral administration when water is used as the vehicle, and for dissolving or diluting substances or preparations for parenteral administration. It is prepared by distillation of potable water or purified water from a neutral glass, quartz, or suitable metal still fitted with an effective device for preventing the entrainment of droplets; the first portion of the distillate is discarded and the remainder collected. Store in conditions designed to prevent growth of micro-organisms and to avoid any other contamination. Sub-monographs cover Water for Injections in Bulk and Sterilised Water for Injections.
USP 31(Water for Injection). It is purified by distillation or a purification process that is equivalent or superior to distillation in the removal of chemicals and micro-organisms. When used for the preparation of parenteral solutions it should be sterilised first or the final preparation should be sterilised after preparation. Sterile Water for Injection, Inhalation, or Irrigation and Bacteriostatic Water for Injection are the subjects of separate monographs.
There are international standards for the quality of water intended for human consumption. Toxic substances such as arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, lead, and selenium may constitute a danger to health if present in drinking water in excess of the recommended concentrations. Water-borne infections are also a hazard. Fluoride is regarded as an essential constituent of drinking water but may endanger health if present in excess—see Sodium Fluoride. Ingestion of water containing large quantities of nitrates may cause methaemoglobinaemia in infants; many countries have standards for nitrates in water. The use of tap water containing metal ions (such as aluminium, copper, and lead), fluoride, or tosylchloramide sodium, for dialysis may be hazardous. Hard water contains soluble calcium and magnesium salts, which form scale and sludge in boilers, water pipes, and autoclaves; they also cause the precipitation of soap and prevent its lathering. Temporary hardness in water is due to the presence of bicarbonates which are converted to insoluble carbonates on heating. Permanent hardness is due to dissolved chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates, which do not form a precipitate on heating. The presence or absence of such salts can play a part in cardiovascular health. Without further purification, potable water may be unsuitable for certain pharmaceutical purposes. In such instances, purified water should always be used. Most pharmacopoeias include monographs on various preparations of water, such as water suitable for injections. Potable water should not be used when such preparations of water are specified. Excessive ingestion of water can lead to water intoxication with disturbances of the electrolyte balance.
1. Manz F, et al. The most essential nutrient: defining the adequate intake of water. J Pediatr 2002; 141: 587–92.
Fin.: Aquasteril; Hung.: Humaqua; Rins-Aqua; Port.: Estericlean†; UK: Aquasol; Uriflex W; USA: Fleet Bagenema.
Published May 08, 2019.