Tin

(rINN)

💊 Chemical information

Cyna; Estaño; Étain; Stannum; Zinn.
Sn = 118.71.
CAS — 7440-31-5.

💊 Profile

Tin is a silver-white, lustrous, malleable, ductile metal. Owing to their low solubility, tin and tin oxide are very poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and have low toxicity. Chronic inhalation causes a benign form of pneumoconiosis. Organic compounds of tin are highly toxic and may cause liver and kidney damage as well as severe neurological damage associated with oedema of the white matter of the brain. Treatment has been symptomatic. Contamination of the skin with organic tin compounds can cause severe burning; suitable precautions should be taken to prevent absorption of organic tin compounds through the skin. Tin and tin oxide have been given in the treatment of boils, but there is little evidence of effectiveness; they were also formerly used in some countries for the treatment of tapeworm. Organic tin compounds, especially tributyltin oxide (TBTO), are used as molluscicides.

Tin in food.

Excess amounts of inorganic tin in food tend to arise from tin-coated cans, especially unlacquered ones, and may produce gastric irritation. Concentrations as low as 150 mg/kg in canned beverages and 250 mg/kg in other canned foods have produced adverse effects in certain individuals, but some foods containing up to 700 mg/kg have not produced any detectable effects. Consumers should be advised not to store foods in opened tinplated cans.1 A recommended acceptable daily intake for chronic exposure to tin has been suggested as a provisional tolerable weekly intake of 14 mg/kg, although it was subsequently noted that this value may have been derived from intakes associated with acute effects, and it was concluded that the toxicokinetics and effects of inorganic tin after long-term exposure to dietary doses at concentrations that did not elicit acute effects should be re-assessed.1 It was also concluded that it was inappropriate to establish an acute reference dose for inorganic tin, since development of gastric irritation depends on the concentration and nature of tin in the food product rather than on the dose ingested on a body-weight basis.1In the EU regulations limit the maximum amount of tin in foods sold in member states to wet weights of 200 mg/kg in canned foods other than beverages, 100 mg/kg in canned beverages including fruit and vegetable juices, and 50 mg/kg in various canned foods for infants.2
1. FAO/WHO. Evaluation of certain food contaminants: sixtyfourth report of the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives. WHO Tech Rep Ser 930 2006. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_930_eng.pdf (accessed 22/07/08
2. The Commission of the European Communities. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J EU 2006; 49: L364/5–24. Also available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/ site/en/oj/2006/l_364/ l_36420061220en00050024.pdf (accessed 22/07/08)

💊 Preparations

Proprietary Preparations

S.Afr.: Metinox.
Published May 08, 2019.