Sodium Bromide

(BAN, USAN, rINN)

💊 Chemical information

Brometo de Sódio; Bromid sodný; Bromure de Sodium; Natrii bromidum; Natrio bromidas; Natrium Bromatum; Natriumbromid; Nátrium-bromid; Natriumbromidi; Sod. Brom.; Sodii Bromidum; Sodium, bromure de; Sodu bromek.
NaBr = 102.9.
CAS — 7647-15-6.

Pharmacopoeias.

In Eur., Jpn, US, and Viet.

Ph. Eur. 6.2

(Sodium Bromide). A slightly hygroscopic, white or almost white, granular powder, or small, colourless, transparent, or opaque crystals. Freely soluble in water; soluble in alcohol. Store in airtight containers.

USP 31

(Sodium Bromide). A white crystalline powder or colourless, cubical crystals. Freely soluble in water; soluble in alcohol.

💊 Adverse Effects and Precautions

During prolonged exposure bromide accumulation may occur giving rise to bromide intoxication or bromism. Symptoms include nausea and vomiting, anorexia, confusion, behavioural disturbances, slurred speech, memory impairment, drowsiness, irritability, ataxia, tremors, hallucinations, mania, delirium, psychoses, stupor, coma, and other manifestations of CNS depression. Skin rashes of various types may occur and toxic epidermal necrolysis has been reported. Death after acute poisoning appears to be rare as vomiting follows the ingestion of large doses. There have been reports of neonatal bromide intoxication and growth defects associated with maternal bromide ingestion during pregnancy.

Breast feeding.

The American Academy of Pediatrics1 considers that intake of bromides is usually compatible with breast feeding, although rashes, weakness, and absence of crying have been reported in the infant following maternal intake. Exposure to bromides in photographic laboratories may also result in potential absorption and transfer into breast milk.
1. American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 2001; 108: 776–89. Correction. ibid.; 1029. Also available at: http:// pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/108/3/776 (accessed 22/07/08)

💊 Treatment of Adverse Effects

In acute poisoning, the stomach should be emptied (if emesis has not already occurred), and sodium chloride should be given by intravenous infusion. Glucose may also be used and furosemide may be given to aid diuresis. In chronic poisoning, bromides are stopped and sodium chloride is given intravenously or orally with adequate amounts of fluid. Ammonium chloride has been given but is no longer recommended as it may precipitate metabolic acidosis. Diuretics are of value. In severe cases of bromide intoxication, or when the usual treatments cannot be used, haemodialysis may be of benefit.

💊 Pharmacokinetics

Bromides are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. They displace chloride in extracellular body fluids and have a half-life in the body of about 12 days. They may be detected in the milk of nursing mothers and in the fetus.

💊 Uses and Administration

Bromides depress the CNS. Calcium, potassium, and sodium bromide have been used as sedatives and anticonvulsants, but have generally been replaced by more effective, less toxic drugs. Ammonium and strontium bromide have been used similarly, as have bromoform and dilute hydrobromic acid. Bromides have also been used in multi-ingredient preparations for the treatment of coughs.

Homoeopathy.

Hydrobromic acid and various bromides have been used in homoeopathic medicines under the following names:
Hydrobromic acid: Hydr. ac.
Ammonium bromide: Ammonium bromatum; Ammonium bromidum; Amm. brom.
Arsenic bromide: Arsenicum bromatum; Ars. brom.
Cadmium bromide: Cadmium bromatum; Cad. brom.
Calcium bromide: Calcarea bromata; Calc. bro.
Ferrous bromide: Ferrum bromatum; Fer. brom.
Potassium bromide: Kalium bromatum; Kali bromatum; Kali. br.
Sodium bromide: Natrum bromatum; Nat. brom.
Radium bromide: Rad. br.
Zinc bromide: Zincum bromatum; Zinc. br.

💊 Preparations

Proprietary Preparations

Ger.: Dibro-Be Mono. Multi-ingredient: Braz.: Alergitrat†; Bromidrastina†; Frenotosse; Gotas Nican†; Naquinto†; Xarope de Caraguata†; Xarope Peitoral de Ameixa Composto†; Xarope Sao Joao†; Xpe SPC†; Chile: Gotas Nican†; Gruben; Ramistos; Fr.: Galirene†; Sedatif Tiber; Indon.: Thymcal; Ital.: Fertomcidina-U; Pol.: Sal Ems Factitium; S.Afr.: Bronchicum†; Spain: Topico Denticion Vera†.
Published January 25, 2019.