Synonyms: Bee Glue; Propóleo; Própolis.
Cyrillic synonym: Прополис.


Propolis is a resinous substance collected by bees, primarily, at least in temperate climates, from poplar buds and to a lesser extent from conifers. It is mixed with wax by bees and used in the construction and maintenance of their hives. Propolis is composed of resins, balsams, essential and aromatic oils, and pollen, although the exact proportions of each varies from region to region, bee species, and local flora, therefore making standardisation of propolis for medicinal use difficult. Propolis has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. It has been used as a nutritional supplement and in preparations for coughs, mouth disorders, and skin disorders. It has been used as an ointment for the relief of symptoms of herpes labialis. Propolis has also been used in cosmetics and varnishes. Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. Further references to propolis are given below.
1. Grange JM, Davey RW. Antibacterial properties of propolis (bee glue). J R Soc Med 1990; 83: 159–60
2. Krol W, et al. Synergistic effect of ethanolic extract of propolis and antibiotics on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Arzneimittelforschung 1993; 43: 607–9
3. Volpert R, Elstner EF. Interactions of different extracts of propolis with leukocytes and leukocytic enzymes. Arzneimittelforschung 1996; 46: 47–51
4. Murray MC, et al. A study to investigate the effect of a propoliscontaining mouthrinse on the inhibition of de novo plaque formation. J Clin Periodontol 1997; 24: 796–8.
ing compounds that are more stable, have a longer duration of action, and a more specific effect. Applications include:
softening and dilating the cervix and for uterine stimulation, e.g. dinoprost (prostaglandin F2) and its analogue carboprost; dinoprostone (prostaglandin E2) and its analogue sulprostone; and gemeprost and misoprostol, analogues of prostaglandin E1
vasodilators and inhibitors of platelet aggregation, e.g. alprostadil (prostaglandin E1) and its analogue limaprost; and epoprostenol (prostacyclin) and its analogue iloprost
inhibition of gastric acid secretion and protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa, e.g. misoprostol
glaucoma treatment, e.g. bimatoprost, latanoprost, travoprost, and unoprostone
as luteolytics (causing regression of the corpus luteum in the ovary) in veterinary medicine, e.g. synthetic analogues of prostaglandin F2.
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2. Higgs GA, Vane JR. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase. Br Med Bull 1983; 39: 265–70
3. Halushka PV, et al. Thromboxane, prostaglandin and leukotriene receptors. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1989; 29: 213–39
4. Smith WL, et al. Prostaglandin and thromboxane biosynthesis. Pharmacol Ther 1991; 49: 153–79
5. O’Neill C. The biochemistry of prostaglandins: a primer. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1994; 34: 332–7
6. Wu KK. Molecular regulation and augmentation of prostacyclin biosynthesis. Agents Actions Suppl 1995; 45: 11–17.
Published May 08, 2019.