Papain

(BAN, USAN, rINN)

💊 Chemical information

Papaína; Papaina; Papayotin.
CAS — 9001-73-4.

Pharmacopoeias.

In US.

USP 31

(Papain). A purified proteolytic substance derived from Carica papaya (Caricaceae). It contains not less than 6000 USP units per mg. A white to light tan, amorphous powder. Soluble in water, the solution being colourless to light yellow and more or less opalescent; practically insoluble in alcohol, in chloroform, and in ether. pH of a 2% solution in water is between 4.8 and 6.2. Store in airtight containers at a temperature of 8° to 15°. Protect from light.

💊 Units

USP 31 defines the USP unit of papain activity as the activity that releases the equivalent of 1 microgram of tyrosine from a specified casein substrate under the conditions of the assay, using the enzyme concentration that liberates 40 micrograms of tyrosine per mL of test solution. One FIP unit of papain is defined as the enzyme activity which under specified conditions hydrolyses 1 micromol of N-benzoylL-arginine ethyl ester per minute. The Warner-Chilcott unit, based on the quantity of enzyme required to clot 2.64 microlitre of milk substrate in 2 minutes at 40°, under specified conditions, has also been used for papain.

💊 Adverse Effects

Hypersensitivity reactions have occurred.

Effects on the eyes.

Ocular and periorbital angioedema occurring within 4 hours of use of a contact lens cleansing solution containing papain has been reported.1
1. Bernstein DI, et al. Local ocular anaphylaxis to papain enzyme contained in a contact lens cleansing solution. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1984; 74: 258–60.

Oesophageal perforation.

Extensive destruction of the oesophageal wall, with perforation, resulted from the use of a papain suspension given to treat an obstruction caused by impacted meat.1 The patient had been given 1.2 g of papain over a 12-hour period. Ten days after a thoracotomy, the descending thoracic aorta ruptured, and she died from haemorrhage.
1. Holsinger JW, et al. Esophageal perforation following meat impaction and papain ingestion. JAMA 1968; 204: 734–5.

💊 Uses and Administration

Papain consists chiefly of a mixture of papain and chymopapain, proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyse polypeptides, amides, and esters, especially at bonds involving basic amino acids, or leucine or glycine, yielding peptides of lower molecular weight. It is used with urea as a topical debriding agent. It is also used for the removal of protein deposits from the surface of soft contact lenses. Preparations of papain, alone or combined with antibacterial agents and/or other substances, have been taken orally for their supposed anti-inflammatory properties, and it has also been used as an ingredient of various mixtures claimed to aid digestion. Papain is widely used as a meat tenderiser and in the clarification of beverages.

Malignant neoplasms.

Papain has been included in proteolytic enzyme preparations used in oncology to reduce the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although the number of clinical studies on which to judge efficacy is limited, a review1of such studies suggested that systemic enzyme therapy might be beneficial. Clinical studies have used a preparation containing papain, trypsin, and chymotrypsin in a weight ratio of 5:2:2, and the beneficial effect seems to be based on its anti-inflammatory potential.
1. Leipner J, Saller R. Systemic enzyme therapy in oncology: effect and mode of action. Drugs 2000; 59: 769–80.

💊 Preparations

USP 31: Papain Tablets for Topical Solution.

Proprietary Preparations

Arg.: Tromasin†; Austral.: Hydrocare Enzymatic Protein Remover†; Stop Itch; Canad.: Solarcaine Stop Itch; Stop Itch†; Chile: Papenzima; Ger.: Vermizym†; Hong Kong: Eurolase; Malaysia: Beazyme; NZ: Stop Itch; USA: Allergan Enzymatic; ProFree. Multi-ingredient: Arg.: Butimerin; Docechol; Homocisteon Compuesto; Opoenterol†; Pankreon Total; Solustres; Tromasin con Aspirina†; Vulnofilin Compuesto†; Austral.: Betaine Digestive Aid; Bio-Disc; Bioglan Discone†; Digestaid; Digestive Aid; Enzyme; Prost-1†; Prozyme†; Austria: Rennie Digestif; Wobe-Mugos; Wobenzym; Belg.: Digestomen; Braz.: Filogaster†; Cz.: Digestif Rennie; Wobe-Mugos†; Wobenzym; Ger.: Arbuz†; EnzymWied†; Mulsal N†; Wobe-Mugos E†; Wobenzym N; Gr.: Lysopaine; Sopain-Plus; Hong Kong: Digezym; Hung.: Digestif Rennie; India: Bestozyme; Catazyme-P; Dipep; Molzyme†; Neopeptine; Nutrozyme; Papytazyme; Unienzyme; Indon.: Papaven; Ital.: Digestopan†; Malaysia: Pepfiz; Mex.: Dermobion†; Digenor Plus; Wobe-Mugos; Wobenzym; Pol.: Carident; Port.: Caroid†; Rus.: Pepfiz (Пепфиз); Wobe-Mugos E (ВобэМугос Е); Wobenzym (Вобэнзим); Singapore: Stop-Itch Plus; Spain: Digestomen Complex; Lizipaina; Switz.: Lysopaine; Thai.: Papytazyme†; Pepfiz; Pepsitase; Polyenzyme-I; UK: Enzyme Digest; Herbal Indigestion Naturtabs; Indigestion and Flatulence; USA: Accuzyme; AllanEnzyme; AllanfillEnzyme; Ethezyme; Gladase; Gladase-C; Kovia; Panafil; Panafil-White; Pap-Urea; Papaya Enzyme; Ziox; Venez.: Enzima de Lechoza†; Wobenzym N.
Published May 08, 2019.