Leptin

(USAN, rINN)
Synonyms: Leptina; OB protein.
Cyrillic synonym: Лептин.

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Leptin, an endogenous peptide hormone produced mainly by white adipocytes in adipose tissue, is involved in the long-term maintenance of body-weight through regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin has a negative feedback effect on hypothalamic control of neurotransmitters involved in the control of appetite: thus, an increase in adipose tissue mass results in an increase in leptin concentrations that in turn suppresses expression of appetite stimulatory peptides and vice versa. Mutations of either the leptin receptor or the ob gene that encodes the leptin protein result in failure of leptin’s control over appetite producing forms of morbid early-onset obesity. However, it is not clear that common obesity is associated with similar genetic mutations or, as also postulated, is associated with functional leptin resistance caused by sustained high leptin concentrations. Leptin is produced in other tissues, and studies have suggested additional functions and properties including modulation of neuroendocrine, immune, and reproductive processes. The potential role of leptin in a variety of disease states including syndromes of insulin resistance, auto-immune diseases, and cardiovascular disorders is also being studied. Replacement therapy with recombinant leptin is under investigation in the management of obesity as well as some other disorders including generalised lipodystrophy and hypothalamic amenorrhoea secondary to energy deficits or low body-weight.
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Published May 08, 2019.