Kava

(BAN, rINN)
Kava Chemical formula

💊 Chemical information

Kava-Kava.
CAS — 500-64-1 (kawain); 495-85-2 (methysticin); 50062-9 (yangonin).
NOTE. The following terms have been used as ‘street names’ or slang names for various forms of kava: ’ava; ’awa; Grog; Kawa; Lewena; Sakau; Waka; Wati; Yaqona.

💊 Profile

Kava is the rhizome of Piper methysticum (Piperaceae), a shrub indigenous to islands of the South Pacific. It contains pyrones including kawain, methysticin, and yangonin. Kava has been used in the South Pacific to produce an intoxicating beverage used for recreational purposes and during convalescence. It is reported to have sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, and anaesthetic properties. It is given in some anxiety- and stress-related disorders. It was formerly used as an antiseptic and diuretic in inflammatory conditions of the genito-urinary tract in the form of a liquid extract. Kawain has also been used for nervous disorders and as a tonic. A characteristic rash resembling that of pellagra occurs in some heavy consumers of kava. Extrapyramidal effects and cases of hepatitis have been reported. Preparations of kava for internal use have been withdrawn in the UK and some other western countries on account of its potential for serious hepatotoxic effects.

Homoeopathy.

Kava has been used in homoeopathic medicines under the following names: Piper methysticum; Piper. m.
1. Anonymous. Kava. Lancet 1988; ii: 258–9
2. Anonymous. Tonga trouble. Pharm J 1990; 245: 288
3. Ruze P. Kava-induced dermopathy: a niacin deficiency? Lancet 1990; 335: 1442–5
4. Schelosky L, et al. Kava and dopamine antagonism. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995; 58: 639–40
5. Spillane PK, et al. Neurological manifestations of kava intoxication. Med J Aust 1997; 167: 172–3
6. Pepping J. Kava: piper methysticum. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1999; 56: 957–60
7. Anonymous. Kava extract linked to hepatitis. WHO Drug Inf 2000; 14: 98
8. Escher M, et al. Hepatitis associated with kava, a herbal remedy for anxiety. BMJ 2001; 322: 139
9. Anonymous. Hepatic toxicity possibly associated with kavacontaining products—United States, Germany, and Switzerland, 1999-2002. MMWR 2002; 51: 1065–7. Also available at: http:// www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5147a1.htm (accessed 15/07/04
10. Stickel F, et al. Hepatitis induced by Kava (Piper methysticum rhizoma). J Hepatol 2003; 39: 62–7
11. Clouatre DL. Kava kava: examining new reports of toxicity. Toxicol Lett 2004; 150: 85–96
12. Anke J, Ramzan I. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with Kava (Piper methysticum Forst. f.). J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 93: 153–60
13. Perez J, Holmes JF. Altered mental status and ataxia secondary to acute Kava ingestion. J Emerg Med 2005; 28: 49–51
14. Ulbricht C, et al. Safety review of kava (Piper methysticum) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2005; 4: 779–94.

💊 Preparations

Proprietary Preparations

Braz.: Ansiopax†; Calmiton†; Calmonex; Farmakava†; Kavakan; Kavalac†; Kavamed; Kavasedon; Laitan; Natuzilium†; Chile: Laikan 100†; Cz.: Antares†; Kavasedon†; Leikan†; Ger.: Aigin†; Ardeydystin†; Eukavan†; KaSabona†; Kava-Phyton†; Kavain Harras N†; Kavasedon†; Kavosporal forte†; Laitan†; Maoni†; Nervonocton N†; Neuronika†; Mex.: Laiken; Switz.: Kavasedon†; Venez.: Kavasedon†. Multi-ingredient: Ger.: Bilicura Forte†; Hewepsychon duo†; Hyposedon N†; Kavosporal comp†; Somnuvis S†; Ital.: Controller; Switz.: Kawaform†; Yakona N†.
Published May 08, 2019.