Garlic

(BAN, rINN)
Garlic Chemical formula
Synonyms: Aglio; Ail; Ail, poudre d’ (garlic powder); Ajo; Allii sativi bulbi pulvis (garlic powder); Allium; Allium Sativum; Česnaku milteliai der); Fokhagymapor (garlic powder); Knoblauch; Valkosipuli; Vitlök.
Cyrillic synonym: Чеснок.

💊 Chemical information

CAS — 8008-99-9 (garlic extract).

Pharmacopoeias.

In US, which also includes Garlic Fluidextract, Powdered Garlic, and Powdered Garlic Extract. Eur. includes Garlic Powder. Eur. also includes Garlic for Homoeopathic Preparations.

Ph. Eur. 6.2 (Garlic Powder). It is produced from garlic that has been cut, freeze-dried or dried at a temperature not exceeding 65°, and powdered. It contains not less than 0.45% of allicin, calculated with reference to the dried drug. It is a light yellowish powder. Protect from light.

Ph. Eur. 6.2 (Garlic for Homoeopathic Preparations). The fresh bulb of Allium sativum. Store in airtight containers. Protect from light.

USP 31 (Garlic). The fresh or dried compound bulbs of Allium sativum (Liliaceae). It contains not less than 0.5% of alliin and not less than 0.2% of γ-glutamyl-(S)-allyl-L-cysteine, calculated on the dried basis. Store in a dry place at a temperature of 8° to 15°. Protect from light.

USP 31 (Powdered Garlic). It is produced from garlic that has been cut, freeze-dried or dried at a temperature not exceeding 65°, and powdered. It contains not less than 0.3% of alliin and not less than 0.1% of γ-glutamyl-(S)-allyl-L-cysteine, calculated on the dried basis. Store in a dry place at a temperature of 8° to 15°. Protect from light.

💊 Adverse Effects

1. Garty B-Z. Garlic burns. Pediatrics 1993; 91: 658–9
2. Canduela V, et al. Garlic: always good for the health? Br J Dermatol 1995; 132: 161–2
3. Farrell AM, Staughton RCD. Garlic burns mimicking herpes zoster. Lancet 1996; 347: 1195
4. Eming SA, et al. Severe toxic contact dermatitis caused by garlic. Br J Dermatol 1999; 141: 391–2
5. Lachter J, et al. Garlic: a way out of work. Mil Med 2003; 168: 499–500.

💊 Uses and Administration

The constituents of garlic include alliin, allicin, diallyl disulfide, and ajoene. It has traditionally been reported to have expectorant, diaphoretic, disinfectant, and diuretic properties. More recently, it has been investigated for antimicrobial, antihypertensive, lipidlowering, fibrinolytic, antiplatelet, and cancer protective effects. Garlic oil has also been used.

Homoeopathy.

Garlic has been used in homoeopathic medicines under the following names: Allium sativum; All. sat.
1. Kleijnen J, et al. Garlic, onions and cardiovascular risk factors: a review of the evidence from human experiments with emphasis on commercially available preparations. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 28: 535–44
2. Mansell P, Reckless JPD. Garlic. BMJ 1991; 303: 379–80
3. McElnay JC, Po ALW. Garlic. Pharm J 1991; 246: 324–6
4. Kiesewetter H, et al. Effect of garlic on platelet aggregation in patients with increased risk of juvenile ischaemic attack. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1993; 45: 333–6
5. Deshpande RG, et al. Inhibition of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates from AIDS patients by garlic (Allium sativum). J Antimicrob Chemother 1993; 32: 623–6
6. Dorant E, et al. Garlic and its significance for the prevention of cancer in humans: a critical review. Br J Cancer 1993; 67: 424–9
7. Ackermann RT, et al. Garlic shows promise for improving some cardiovascular risk factors. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 813–24
8. Tattelman E. Health effects of garlic. Am Fam Physician 2005; 72: 103–6
9. Rahman K, Lowe GM. Garlic and cardiovascular disease: a critical review. J Nutr 2006; 136 (suppl): 736S–740S.

Hyperlipidaemia.

Garlic has been widely promoted for use in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia. Several early placebo-controlled trials1,2 and meta-analyses3,4 showed that garlic significantly decreased total serum-cholesterol concentrations. However, more recent data suggest that the effect is at best modest5 or that there is no significant difference6-9 when compared with placebo.
1. Jain AK, et al. Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study. Am J Med 1993; 94: 632–5
2. Kenzelmann R, Kade F. Limitation of the deterioration of lipid parameters by a standardized garlic-ginkgo combination product: a multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1993; 43: 978–81
3. Warshafsky S, et al. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119: 599–605
4. Silagy C, Neil A. Garlic as a lipid lowering agent—a meta-analysis. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1994; 28: 39–45
5. Stevinson C, et al. Garlic for treating hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 420–9
6. Neil HAW, et al. Garlic powder in the treatment of moderate hyperlipidaemia: a controlled trial and a meta-analysis. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1996; 30: 329–34
7. Berthold HK, et al. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998; 279: 1900–2
8. Isaacsohn JL, et al. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 1189–94
9. Gardner CD, et al. Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 346–53.

💊 Preparations

USP 31: Garlic Delayed-Release Tablets.

Proprietary Preparations

Arg.: Ajomast; Alliocaps; Kyolic Super Formula†; Austral.: Garlix; Macro Garlic†; Austria: Kwai; Canad.: Kwai†; Kyolic†; Cz.: Kwai†; Ger.: Alliosan†; beni-cur†; Carisano†; Ilja Rogoff Forte†; Kwai; Ravalgen†; Sapec; Strongus†; Vitagutt Knoblauch†; Ital.: Kwai; Malaysia: Kyolic; Pol.: Aliovital; Alitol; Geriacaps; Port.: Alho Rogoff†; Switz.: A Vogel Capsules a l’ail†; Kwai†; UK: Garlimega; Kwai; Kyolic; Venez.: Kwai†. Multi-ingredient: Arg.: Aglio; Ajo 1000 + C; Ajo Forte; Ajolip; Ajomast Circulatorio†; Exail; Varisedan; Austral.: Garlic Allium Complex; Garlic and Horseradish + C Complex; Garlic, Horseradish, A & C Capsules†; Gartech; Herbal Cold & Flu Relief†; Lifesystem Herbal Formula 7 Liver Tonic†; Liver Tonic Herbal Formula 6†; Odourless Garlic; Procold†; Proesten†; Protol†; Proyeast†; Silybum Complex†; Austria: Rutiviscal; Canad.: Kyolic 101; Kyolic 102; Kyolic 103†; Kyolic 104†; Kyolic 106†; Fr.: Arterase; Ger.: Asgoviscum N†; Ilja Rogoff; Lipidavit; Presselin Arterien K 5 P†; Hong Kong: Ginkgo Plus Vivo-Livo†; Indon.: Garlic-Plus; Resvica; Sotens; Ital.: Angiovein; Malaysia: Circarol; Echinacea Plus†; Horseradish Plus†; Total Man†; Mex.: Supravital; Philipp.: Circulan; Nutrotal; Pol.: Alliofil; Alliogal†; Alliorut; Cepasmel; Cepastil; Doppelherz Vital Kapseln; Switz.: Allium Plus; Arterosan Plus; Keli-med; Triallin; UK: Antifect; Clogar; Fishogar; Hay Fever & Sinus Relief; Hayfever & Sinus Relief; Liqufruta Garlic Cough Medicine.
Published May 08, 2019.