Gangliosides

(BAN, rINN)
Synonyms: Gangliósidos.
Cyrillic synonym: Ганглиозиды.

Profile

Gangliosides are endogenous substances present in mammalian cell membranes, especially in the cortex of the brain. They are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophilic oligosaccharide chain, characterised by sialic acid residues, attached to a lipophilic moiety. The four major gangliosides found in the mammalian brain are referred to as GM1, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b. Experimental studies have reported that gangliosides may have a neuroprotective effect on the CNS and peripheral nervous system. Preparations of gangliosides from bovine brain have been given for peripheral neuropathies and cerebrovascular disorders and their role in spinal cord injury has also been investigated. The modified ganglioside siagoside has been studied in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Concern was expressed about the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other motor neurone disorders in some patients, and it was suggested that gangliosides were contra-indicated in Guillain-Barré syndrome and all auto-immune disorders. Subsequently these concerns over safety and doubts about efficacy led to the withdrawal of ganglioside preparations in many countries.
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2. Raschetti R, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome and ganglioside therapy in Italy. Lancet 1992; 340: 60
3. Figueras A, et al. Bovine gangliosides and acute motor polyneuropathy. BMJ 1992; 305: 1330–1
4. Roberts JW, et al. Iatrogenic hyperlipidaemia with GM-1 ganglioside. Lancet 1993; 342: 115
5. Landi G, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome after exogenous gangliosides in Italy. BMJ 1993; 307: 1463–4
6. Nobile-Orazio E, et al. Gangliosides: their role in clinical neurology. Drugs 1994; 47: 576–85
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4. Chichester: John Wiley; 2001 (accessed 23/05/06)
8. Fredman P, et al. Gangliosides as therapeutic targets for cancer. BioDrugs 2003; 17: 155–67
9. Govoni V, et al. Is there a decrease in Guillain-Barré syndrome incidence after bovine ganglioside withdrawal in Italy? A population-based study in the Local Health District of Ferrara, Italy. J Neurol Sci 2003; 216: 99–103
10. Chinnock P, Roberts I. Gangliosides for acute spinal cord injury. Available in The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Issu
2. Chichester: John Wiley; 2005 (accessed 23/05/06).

Preparations

Proprietary Preparations

Braz.: Sinaxial; Sygen.
Published May 08, 2019.