Echinacea

(rINN)

💊 Chemical information

Black Sampson; Blyškiu ju ežiuoliu šaknys (pale coneflower root); Brauneria; Coneflower; Echinacea angustifolia, racine d’ (narrowleaved coneflower root); Echinacea pallida, racine d’ (pale coneflower root); Echinacea purpurea, parties aériennes fleuries d’ coneflower root); Echinaceae angustifoliae radix (narrow-leaved coneflower root); Echinaceae pallidae radix (pale coneflower root); Echinaceae purpureae herba (purple coneflower herb); Echinaceae purpureae radix (purple coneflower root); Equinácea; Kaitapäivänhatunjuuri (narrow-leaved coneflower root); Kořen třapatky bledé (pale coneflower root); Kořen třapatky úzkolisté (narrow-leaved coneflower root); Läkerudbeckiarot (pale coneflower root); Liten läkerudbeckiarot (narrow-leaved coneflower root); Rohtopäivänhatunjuuri (pale coneflower root); Rudbeckia; Siauralapiu ežiuoliu šaknys (narrow-leaved coneflower root); Sonnenhutkraut.

Pharmacopoeias.

In Eur. and US.

Ph. Eur. 6.2 (Narrow-Leaved Coneflower Root; Echinaceae Angustifoliae Radix). The dried, whole, or cut underground parts of Echinacea angustifolia. It contains a minimum 0.5% of echinacoside (C 35 H 46 O 20 = 786.7), calculated with reference to the dried drug. Store uncomminuted. Protect from light.

Ph. Eur. 6.2 (Pale Coneflower Root; Echinaceae Pallidae Radix). The dried, whole, or cut underground parts of Echinacea pallida. It contains a minimum 0.2% of echinacoside calculated with reference to the dried drug. Store uncomminuted. Protect from light.

Ph. Eur. 6.2 ( Purple Coneflower Herb; Echinaceae Purpureae Herba). The dried, whole or cut flowering aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea. It contains a minimum of 0.1% of the sum of caftaric acid (C 13 H 12 O 9 = 312.2) and cichoric acid (C 22 H 18 O 12 = 474.4). Store uncomminuted.

Ph. Eur. 6.2 ( Purple Coneflower Root; Echinaceae Purpureae Radix). The dried, whole or cut underground parts of Echinacea purpurea. It contains a minimum of 0.5% of the sum of caftaric acid (C 13 H 12 O 9 = 312.2) and cichoric acid (C 22 H 18 O 12 = 474.4). Store uncomminuted.

USP 31 (Echinacea Angustifolia). It consists of the dried rhizome and roots of Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae), harvested in the autumn after 1 or more years of growth. It contains not less than 0.5% of total phenols. Protect from light.

USP 31 (Echinacea Pallida). It consists of the dried rhizome and roots of Echinacea pallida (Asteraceae), harvested in the autumn after 3 or more years of growth. It contains not less than 0.5% of total phenols. Protect from light.

USP 31 (Echinacea Purpurea Root). It consists of the dried rhizome and roots of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae), harvested in the autumn after 3 or more years of growth. It contains not less than 0.5% of total phenols. Protect from light.

USP 31 (Echinacea Purpurea Aerial Parts). The aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) harvested during the flowering stage. It contains not less than 1.0% of chicoric acid, and not less than 0.01% of dodecatetraenoic acid isobutylamides (C 16 H 25 NO), calculated on the dried basis. Store in airtight containers. Protect from light.

💊 Profile

Echinacea, the dried, whole, or cut underground parts of Echinacea angustifolia (Brauneria angustifolia), E. pallida (B. pallida), or E. purpurea, or the aerial parts of E. purpurea, is reported to have immunostimulant properties. It is used in herbal preparations for the prophylaxis of bacterial and viral infections.

Homoeopathy.

Echinacea has been used in homoeopathic medicines under the following names: Echinacea purpurea; Echinacea purpurea ex planta tota; Echinacea purpurea, Planta tota; Echinacea angustifolia; Echin. an.

Adverse effects.

The most common adverse effects reported on short-term use of echinacea were gastrointestinal and skinrelated; these were generally transient and reversible.1 Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis have been reported.1-4
1. Huntley AL, et al. The safety of herbal medicinal products derived from Echinacea species. Drug Safety 2005; 28: 387–400
2. Mullins RJ, Heddle R. Adverse reactions associated with echinacea: the Australian experience. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002; 88: 42–51
3. Health Canada. Natural health products and adverse reactions. Can Adverse React News 2004; 14 (1): 2. Also available at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/alt_formats/hpfb-dgpsa/ pdf/medeff/carn-bcei_v14n1_e.pdf (accessed 11/08/05
4. Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee (ADRAC). Adverse reactions to complementary medicines. Aust Adverse Drug React Bull 2005; 24: 2. Also available at: http://www.tga.health.gov.au/ adr/aadrb/aadr0502.htm (accessed 11/08/05)

Pharmacokinetics.

The pharmacokinetics of alkamides extracted from Echinacea angustifolia roots have been studied1 in human subjects. Fast absorption of some alkamides was shown after oral use; highly lipophilic alkamides could not be detected in plasma.
1. Woelkart K, et al. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of alkamides from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 2005; 45: 683–9.

Use in respiratory disorders.

Echinacea is widely used in herbal preparations to treat upper respiratory-tract infections such as the common cold. Studies1-3 have produced conflicting results, but systematic reviews suggest that most have methodological flaws4 rendering evidence of efficacy unconvincing.4,5 A meta-analysis6 of 14 randomised controlled studies suggested that echinacea does have a benefit in decreasing the incidence and duration of the common cold, although it was acknowledged that larger prospective studies controlling for several variables (e.g. species) are needed before it can be routinely recommended. Comparative evaluation of specific preparations is also difficult because of varying composition. Evaluation of the effect of 3 extracts of Echinacea angustifolia root, each produced by a different extraction method and with defined phytochemical profiles, demonstrated no clinically significant effects by any of them on experimental rhinovirus infection or ensuing illness compared with placebo.7 Alkamides, polysaccharides, and caffeic acid derivatives, which have been proposed as the active components of echinacea preparations, were present in varying amounts in the extracts.
1. Turner RB, et al. Ineffectiveness of echinacea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000; 44: 1708–9
2. Barrett BP, et al. Treatment of the common cold with unrefined echinacea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137: 939–46
3. Taylor JA, et al. Efficacy and safety of echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003; 290: 2824–30
4. Caruso TJ, Gwaltney JM. Treatment of the common cold with echinacea. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40: 807–10
5. Linde K, et al. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Available in The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Issu
1. Chichester: John Wiley; 2006 (accessed 31/07/08)
6. Shah SA, et al. Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7: 473–80
7. Turner RB,et al. An evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in experimental rhinovirus infections. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 341–8.

💊 Preparations

Proprietary Preparations

Austral.: Echinacin; Austria: Echinacin; Echinaforce; Sanvita Immun; Belg.: Echinacin; Braz.: Enax; Equinacea†; Imunnal; Imunocel†; Imunogreen; Canad.: Citranacea†; Triple Blend Echinacea; Cz.: Echinacin; Immunal; Ger.: aar vir; Cefatox†; Echan; Echifit†; Echiherb†; Echinacin; Echinaforce; Echinapur; Echinatur; Episcorit; Esberitox mono; Lymphozil; Pascotox forte-Injektopas†; Pascotox mono†; Pascotox Purpurea; Resistan mono; Resplant†; toxi-loges; Wiedimmun†; Gr.: Echinacin; Hung.: Echinacin; Ital.: EuMunil; Mex.: Inmune Booster†; Regripax; Pol.: Echinapur; Echinerba; Immunal; Lymphozil; Purex; Rus.: Immunal (Иммунал); Immunorm (Иммунорм); Spain: Echinacin; Ekian; Revitonil; Switz.: Echinacin; Echinaforce; EchinaMed; Echiplant†; UK: Benylin Active Response†; Echinacea; Echinaforce; Phytocold; Skin Clear; Venez.: Flucaps. Multi-ingredient: Arg.: Parodontax Fluor; SX-22; Austral.: Andrographis Complex; Andrographis Compound; Astragalus Complex; Broncafect; Cats Claw Complex; Cold and Flu Relief†; Cough Relief†; Diaco; Digest; Echinacea 4000; Echinacea ACE + Zinc; Echinacea Complex; Echinacea Lozenge; Euphrasia Complex; Flavons; Galium Complex†; Gartech; Herbal Cleanse†; Herbal Cold & Flu Relief†; Lifesystem Herbal Plus Formula 8 Echinacea†; Logicin Natural Lozenges†; Odourless Garlic†; Proyeast†; Sambucus Complex†; Urgenin†; Urinase†; Austria: Esberitox; Parodontax; Spasmo-Urgenin; Urgenin; Belg.: Medica Junior; Urgenin; Braz.: Infantoss†; Malvatricin Natural; Malvatricin Natural Organic; Malvatricin Natural Soft; Parodontax; Canad.: Bentasil Licorice with Echinacea†; Benylin First Defense†; Echinacea Goldenseal Formula†; Chile: Citro-C; Paltomiel Plus; Ger.: Ermsech†; Esberitox N; Hewenephron duo†; Hong Kong: Urgenin; Indon.: Biofos; Curmunos; Ekinase; Flavin; Hepasil; Hepatin; Imboost; Imboost Force; Imudator; Norflam; Primunox; Proimbus; Proza; Stamino; StarMuno; Stimox; Tribost; Israel: Parodontax†; Urgenin; Ital.: Bodyguard; Dermilia Flebozin; Golatux; Immumil Plus; Immumil†; Immun-up; Influ-Zinc; Nepiros; Probigol; Promix 3†; Promix†; Ribovir; Sclerovis H; Malaysia: Echinacea Plus†; Esberitox N; Total Man†; Mex.: Gripaleta†; NZ: Lice Blaster; Strepsils Echinacea Defence; Pol.: Cardiobonisol; Echinasal; Esberitox N; Immunofort; Pectobonisol; Plantifort; Reumaherb; Port.: Neo Urgenin; Spasmo-Urgenin†; Vitace; Rus.: Prostanorm (Простанорм); S.Afr.: Spasmo-Urgenin†; Wecesin; Singapore: Noricaven†; Proza; Spain: Neo Ur genin; Spasmo-Urgenin; Urgenin; Switz.: Demonatur Capsules contre les refroidissements; Demonatur Dragees pour les reins et la vessie; Drosana Resiston avec vitamine C; Esberitop; Gel a la consoude; Kytta Gel†; Parodontax F†; Parodontax†; Phytomed Prosta†; Prosta-Caps Chassot N; Spagymun; Spagyrom; Wala Echinacea; Wecesin†; Thai.: Spasmo-Urgenin; UK: Antifect; Echinacea; Goodypops; Hay Fever & Sinus Relief; Hayfever & Sinus Relief; Modern Herbals Cold & Catarrh; Revitonil; Sinotar.
Published May 08, 2019.