Cytokines

(rINN)
Synonyms: Citocinas; Citokinas; Citoquinas.
Cyrillic synonym: Цитокины.

Profile

Cytokines are a group of endogenous soluble peptides produced by many different cell types in response to noxious stimuli. In contrast to peptide hormones, they tend to act locally. Cytokines affect expression of genes influencing changes at the cellular level and have a regulatory function, acting as growth factors in cellular differentiation and/or proliferation. Cytokines are also involved in host responses to disease such as infection or inflammation. Some cytokines induce inflammation whereas others have an anti-inflammatory action through inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines are classified by their biological activity rather than structure and most are pleiotropic (i.e. they are multifunctional). A large number of cytokines alter endothelial function affecting permeability and may also cause cellular damage or death. Some cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of diseases, particularly immune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases; they may also be involved in the development of cardiovascular disease. Cytokines that are used clinically include:
granulocyte colony-stimulating factors such as filgrastim
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors such as molgramostim
interferons
some interleukins
oprelvekin, a platelet growth factor
palifermin, a keratinocyte growth factor
somatomedins
thrombopoietin
trafermin, a fibroblast growth factor
tumour necrosis factor
urogastrone, an epidermal growth factor
Anticytokine-based therapy may involve suppressing the action of single or related cytokines by specific soluble cytokine receptors, antagonists to the cytokine receptor, or antibodies against the cytokine. Alternatively, the synthesis of several unrelated cytokines may be suppressed by a single therapeutic agent. Fusion toxins in which protein sequences from cytokines or natural growth factors are combined with a bacterial toxin have also been produced to target specific cytokines.
1. Xing Z, Wang J. Consideration of cytokines as therapeutics agents or targets. Curr Pharm Des 2000; 6: 599–611
2. Schooltink H, Rose-John S. Cytokines as therapeutic drugs. J Interferon Cytokine Res 2002; 22: 505–16
3. Andreakos ET, et al. Cytokines and anti-cytokine biologicals in autoimmunity: present and future. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2002; 13: 299–313
4. Stevceva L. Cytokines and their antagonists as therapeutic agents. Curr Med Chem 2002; 9: 2201–7
5. Chung KF. Cytokines as targets in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Curr Drug Targets 2006; 7: 675–81
6. Villar CC, et al. Therapeutic modulation of cytokines in chronic infectious diseases. Curr Pharm Des 2006; 12: 2329–48
7. Feurino LW, et al. Current update of cytokines in pancreatic cancer: pathogenic mechanisms, clinical indication, and therapeutic values. Cancer Invest 2006; 24: 696–703.
Published May 08, 2019.