Clove Oil

(BANM, USAN, rINNM)

💊 Chemical information

Pharmacopoeias.

In Eur. and Jpn. Also in USNF.

Ph. Eur. 6.2

(Clove Oil). A clear yellow liquid obtained by steam distillation from clove containing 75.0 to 88.0% of eugenol. It becomes brown on exposure to air. Miscible with dichloromethane, with toluene, and with fatty oils. Store in well-filled airtight containers. Protect from light and heat.

USNF 26

(Clove Oil). The volatile oil distilled with steam from clove. It contains not less than 85.0% of phenolic substances, chiefly eugenol. Soluble 1 in 2 of alcohol (70%). Store in wellfilled airtight containers.

Incompatibility.

PVC bottles softened and distorted fairly rapidly in the presence of clove oil, which should not be stored or dispensed in such bottles. 1 1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Plastics medicine bottles of rigid PVC. Pharm J 1973; 210: 100.

💊 Profile

Clove oil is a carminative that is sometimes used in the treatment of flatulent colic. It is also used as a flavour. Applied externally clove oil is irritant but can produce local anaesthesia. It is used as a domestic remedy for toothache, a plug of cotton wool soaked in the oil being inserted in the cavity of the carious tooth; repeated application may damage the gingival tissues. Mixed with zinc oxide, it is used as a temporary anodyne dental filling, although eugenol, one of its constituents, is often preferred. Clove oil is included as a counter-irritant in preparations for musculoskeletal and joint disorders. It is also used in aromatherapy. Eugenol may cause hypersensitivity.

Adverse effects.

Severe toxicity after ingestion of clove oil by young children has been reported.1-4 Adverse effects included coma, acidosis, a generalised seizure, disordered blood clotting, and acute liver damage. For reference to the harmful effects of smoking clove cigarettes, see under Clove, above.
1. Lane BW, et al. Clove oil ingestion in an infant. Hum Exp Toxicol 1991; 10: 291–4
2. Hartnoll G, et al. Near fatal ingestion of oil of cloves. Arch Dis Child 1993; 69: 392–3
3. Eisen JS, et al. N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of clove oilinduced fulminant hepatic failure. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2004; 42: 89–92
4. Janes SE, et al. Essential oil poisoning: N-acetylcysteine for eugenol-induced hepatic failure and analysis of a national database. Eur J Pediatr 2005; 164: 520–2.

💊 Preparations

BP 2008: Aromatic Cardamom Tincture.

Proprietary Preparations

S.Afr.: Naeltjie-Olie; UK: Dentogen; Soothake Toothache Gel. Multi-ingredient: Austral.: Tiger Balm Red; Tiger Balm White; Austria: Parodontax; Tiger Balsam Rot; Braz.: Algidente†; Anestesiol†; Dentisan; Canad.: Tiger Balm Red; Tiger Balm Ultra; Tiger Balm White; Chile: Agua del Carmen; Agua Melisa Carminativa; Hustagil†; Cz.: Amol; Herbadent; Parodontal F5†; Stopangin; Tiger Balm Rot†; Fr.: Aromasol; Baume Aroma; Gouttes aux Essences; Nazinette du Docteur Gilbert; Tigridol; Ger.: Amol Heilkrautergeist N; China-Balsam†; esto-gast; Hustagil Erkaltungsbalsam†; Melissengeist; Nur 1 Tropfen medizinisches Mundwasser†; Repha-Os; Salviathymol N; Hong Kong: Magesto; India: Arowash; Sensur; Indon.: Balsam Sakti; Corsabalm; Israel: Tiger Balm Red; Tiger Balm White; Ital.: Dentosan Azione Intensiva; Dentosan Mese; Fialetta Odontalgica Dr Knapp; Ondroly-A†; NZ: Electric Blue Headlice; Toothache Drops†; Pol.: Amol; Argol Essenza Balsamica; Argol Grip; Argol Rheuma; Aromatol; Carmolis; Olbas; Salviasept; Rus.: Carmolis (Кармолис)†; Carmolis Fluid (Кармолис Жидкость)†; Efcamon (Эфкамон); S.Afr.: Alpha Toothache Essence; Balsem Vita GEEL; Balsem Vita ROOI; Balsem Vita WIT; Enterodyne; Helmontskruie; Moultons Pain Paint; Muscle Rub; Prep; Puma Balm; SB Toothache Drops; Spain: Dentol Topico; Otogen Calmante; Switz.: Baume de Chine Temple of Heaven blanc; Carmol; Carmol Plus†; Olbas; Osa gel dentaire aux plantes; Parodontax†; Sansilla; Spagyrom; Thai.: Magesto; Masaga; Mesto-Of; Turk.: Disinol; UK: Hactos; Nine Rubbing Oils; Olbas; Olbas for Children; Potters Sugar Free Cough Pastilles; Red Oil; Snowfire; Soothake Toothache Tincture; Teenstick; Tiger Balm; USA: Dentapaine; Numzit†; Toothache Gel; Venez.: One Drop Only†.
Published April 23, 2019.