Chamomile

(USAN, rINNM)

💊 Chemical information

Camomille romaine, fleur de (chamomile flower, Roman); Chamomillae romanae flos (chamomile flower, Roman); Heřmánkový květ (matricaria flower); Kamillavirágzat (matricaria flower); Kamomillankukka (matricaria flower); Kamomillankukka, roomalainen (chamomile flower, Roman); Kamomillblomma flower, Roman); Koszyczek rumianku (matricaria flower); Květ heřmánku římského (chamomile flower, Roman); Manzanilla; Matricaire, fleur de (matricaria flower); Matricariae flos (matricaria flower); Ramune˙liu virág (chamomile flower, Roman); Tauriu ju didramuniu (chamomile flower, Roman).

Description.

The name Chamomile is used for the dried flowerheads from 2 species of Compositae having similar medicinal properties:
Chamomile from Anthemis nobilis (Chamaemelum nobile) is known as Chamomile Flowers, Chamomillae Romanae Flos, Manzanilla Romana, or Roman Chamomile Flower.
Chamomile from Matricaria recutita (Chamomilla recutita) is known as Camomile Allemande, Camomilla, Chamomilla, Chamomillae Anthodium, Flos Chamomillae, Flos Chamomillae Vulgaris, German Chamomile, Hungarian Chamomile, Kamillenblüten, Manzanilla Ordinaria, Matricaria Flower, or Matricariae Flos

Pharmacopoeias.

Eur. includes chamomile from Anthemis nobilis and Matricaria recutita. US includes chamomile from Matricaria recutita. Eur. also includes Matricaria Oil.

Ph. Eur. 6.2 (Chamomile Flower, Roman; Chamomile Flowers BP 2008). The dried flowerheads obtained from the cultivated double variety of Anthemis nobilis (Chamaemelum nobile), containing not less than 0.7% v/w of essential oil, calculated with reference to the dried drug. It has a strong characteristic odour. Protect from light.

Ph. Eur. 6.2 (Matricaria Flower; Matricariae Flos; Matricaria Flowers BP 2008). The dried flowerheads obtained from Matricaria recutita (Chamomilla recutita), containing not less than 0.4% v/w of blue essential oil and 0.25% of apigenin-7-glucoside, calculated with reference to the dried drug. Protect from light.

Ph. Eur. 6.2 (Matricaria Oil; Matricariae Aetheroleum). The blue essential oil obtained by steam distillation from the fresh or dried flower-heads or flowering tops of Matricaria recutita (Chamomilla recutita). There are 2 types of matricaria oil which are characterised as rich in bisabolol oxides, or rich in levomenol. Store in a well-filled, airtight container at a temperature not exceeding 25°. Protect from light.

USP 31

(Chamomile). The dried flowerheads of Matricaria recutita (Matricaria chamomilla, Matricaria chamomilla var. courrantiana, Chamomilla recutita) (Asteraceae alt. Compositae). It contains not less than 0.4% of blue volatile oil, not less than 0.3% of apigenin-7-glucoside, and not less than 0.15% of bisabolane derivatives, calculated as levomenol. Protect from light.

💊 Profile

Chamomile has been applied externally as a poultice in the early stages of inflammation, and preparations containing chamomile or extracts of chamomile (including the oil or a constituent, chamazulene), have been used for skin disorders, including the prevention and treatment of cracked nipples and nappy rash. Chamomile German oil and Chamomile Roman oil are used in aromatherapy. ‘Chamomile tea’ is a domestic remedy for indigestion and has also been reported to have hypnotic properties. There have been reports of contact sensitivity and anaphylaxis.

Homoeopathy.

Chamomile has been used in homoeopathic medicines under the following names: Chamomilla; Cham.
1. Berry M. The chamomiles. Pharm J 1995; 254: 191–3.

Hypersensitivity.

References.
1. Van Ketel WG. Allergy to Matricaria chamomilla. Contact Dermatitis 1987; 16: 50–1
2. McGeorge BC, Steele MC. Allergic contact dermatitis of the nipple from Roman chamomile ointment. Contact Dermatitis 1991; 24: 139–40
3. Rodriguez-Serna M, et al. Allergic and systemic contact dermatitis from Matricaria chamomilla tea. Contact Dermatitis 1998; 39: 192–3
4. Jensen-Jarolim E, et al. Fatal outcome of anaphylaxis to camomile-containing enema during labor: a case study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998; 102: 1041–2
5. Giordano-Labadie F, et al. Allergic contact dermatitis from camomile used in phytotherapy. Contact Dermatitis 2000; 42: 247
6. Foti C, et al. Contact urticaria from Matricaria chamomilla. Contact Dermatitis 2000; 42: 360–1
7. de la Torre Morín F, et al. Clinical cross-reactivity between Artemisia vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile). J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2001; 11: 118–22
8. Paulsen E, et al. Cosmetics and herbal remedies with Compositae plant extracts — are they tolerated by Compositae-allergic patients? Contact Dermatitis 2008; 58: 15–23.

💊 Preparations

Ph. Eur.: Matricaria Liquid Extract.

Proprietary Preparations

Austria: Kamillosan; Belg.: Babygencal; Kamillosan; Braz.: Ad-Muc; Kamillosan; Chile: Kamillosan†; Cz.: APS Balneum†; Hermankovy; Kamillosan; Rumancek Pravy†; Fr.: Cefamig; Ger.: Azulon; Chamo S†; Eukamillat†; Galenat Kamill N†; Kamillan supra; Kamille N†; Kamille†; Kamillen-Bad N Ritsert; Kamillen†; Kamillenbad Intradermi; Kamillencreme N†; Kamillenextract†; Kamillin; Kamilloderm†; Kamillopur; Kamillosan; Markalakt†; Matmille; PC 30 N; Soledum med†; Hong Kong: Camoderm; India: Kamillosan; Indon.: Kamillosan; Irl.: Kamillosan; Ital.: Ceru Spray; Milla; Mex.: Balsamo Nordin; Kamillosan; NZ: Kamillosan†; Pol.: Azulan; Azuseptol; Port.: Kamilosan; Rus.: Romasulan (Ромазулан); S.Afr.: Ashton & Parsons Infants Powders; Singapore: Camoderm†; Switz.: Kamillen-Bad†; Kamillex; Kamillin Medipharm; Kamillofluid; Kamillosan; UK: Ashton & Parsons Infants Powders; Kamillosan; Venez.: Kamillen.
Published March 04, 2019.