Bile Acids and Salts


💊 Chemical information

Biliares, ácidos y sales.


Jpn includes bear bile.

💊 Profile

The principal primary bile acids, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, are produced in the liver from cholesterol and are conjugated with glycine or taurine to give glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid, before being secreted into the bile where they are present as the sodium or potassium salts (bile salts). Secondary bile acids are formed in the colon by bacterial deconjugation and 7 α-dehydroxylation of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, producing deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, respectively. Ursodeoxycholic acid is a minor bile acid in man although it is the principal bile acid in bears. Dehydrocholic acid is a semisynthetic bile acid. The total body pool of bile salts is about 3 g, and most of the secreted bile salts are reabsorbed in a process of enterohepatic recycling, so that only a small fraction of this amount must be synthesised de novo each day. Bile salts are strongly amphiphilic; with the aid of phospholipids they form micelles and emulsify cholesterol and other lipids in bile. Oral administration of chenodeoxycholic acid also reduces the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver, while ursodeoxycholic acid reduces biliary cholesterol secretion apparently by increasing conversion of cholesterol to other bile acids. The bile acids (but not the bile salts) also have a choleretic action, increasing the secretion of bile, when given by mouth. Chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid are given by mouth in the management of cholesterol-rich gallstones in patients unsuited to, or unwilling to undergo, surgery. Ursodeoxycholic acid is also being studied in some liver disorders. Preparations containing bile salts have been used to assist the emulsification of fats and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins in conditions in which there is a deficiency of bile in the gastrointestinal tract. Ox bile has also been used in the treatment of chronic constipation. Cholic acid is used for the treatment of inborn errors in primary bile synthesis. Sodium cholate has been used for its spermicidal properties in barrier contraceptives.

💊 Preparations

Proprietary Preparations

Chile: Desicol; Ger.: Cholecysmon†; Mex.: Virulizin; Rus.: Festal (Фестал); S.Afr.: Bilron†; Venez.: Hepa-Desicol. Multi-ingredient: Arg.: Bibol Leloup; Bil 13; Bilagol; Bilidren; Biliosan Compuesto†; Carbogasol Digestivo; Cascara Sagrada Bouzen†; Digesplen; Gastron Fuerte†; Hepatalgina; Nilflux; Opobyl; Pankreon Compuesto†; Veracolate; Zimerol; Austral.: Digestaid; Enzyme; Lexat†; Austria: Arca-Enzym; Buccalin; Combizym Compositum; Dragees Neunzehn†; Helopanzym; Intestinol; Silberne; Belg.: Buccaline; Grains de Vals; Braz.: B-Vesil; Dasc; Emagrex†; Figatil; Jurubileno†; Nutrizim†; Canad.: Bicholate; Herbalax†; Laxative†; Protectaid; Chile: Combizym Compositum; Combizym†; Flapex E; Hepabil; K.C.M.C; Katin; Onoton†; Cz.: Combizym Compositum; Fin.: Combizym Compositum; Fr.: Rectopanbiline; Ger.: Combizym Compositum†; Hong Kong: Bilsan; Buccaline†; Enzyplex; Hepatofalk; Protectaid; Topase†; Hung.: Combizym Compositum†; India: Digeplex-T; Dispeptal†; Farizym; Ipental†; Merckenzyme; Panolase†; Papytazyme; Indon.: Benozym; Berzymplex; Cotazym Forte; Enzymfort; Enzyplex; Eviprostat; Pankreon Comp; Israel: Encypalmed; Ital.: Solvobil; Malaysia: Enzyplex; Mex.: Dirfaben†; Dixiflen; Espaven Enzimatico; Ochozim; Onoton; Zimeton; NZ: Buccaline; Port.: Byl†; Caroid†; Combizym Compositum†; Fermetone Composto; Rus.: Ipental (Ипентал); Singapore: Enzyplex; Spain: Menabil Complex†; Swed.: Combizym Compositum; Switz.: Buccaline; Combizym Compositum; Thai.: Buccaline†; Combizym Compositum; Enzyplex; Papytazyme†; Veracolate; Turk.: Flaton; Intestinol; Multanzim; Pankrodigest; UK: Protectaid; USA: Digepepsin; Venez.: Combizym Forte; Nutizym Compositum; Pankreon Compositum; Stamyl.
Published January 18, 2019.