Synonyms: N-Acetyl Hydroxyacetamide; Acide Acétohydroxamique; Ácido acetohidroxámico; Acidum Acetohydroxamicum; AHA.
Cyrillic synonym: Ацетогидроксамовая Кислота.
💊 Chemical information
Chemical formula: C2H5NO2 = 75.07.
CAS — 546-88-3.
ATC — G04BX03.
ATC Vet — QG04BX03.
USP 31(Acetohydroxamic Acid). White, slightly hygroscopic, crystalline powder. Freely soluble in water and in alcohol; very slightly soluble in chloroform. Store in airtight containers at a temperature between 8° and 15°.
💊 Adverse Effects and Precautions
Phlebitis, thromboembolism, haemolytic anaemia, and iron-deficiency anaemia have occurred. Bone-marrow depression has been reported in animal studies. Other adverse effects include headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, alopecia, rash (particularly after ingestion of alcohol), trembling, and mental symptoms including anxiety and depression. Blood counts and renal function should be monitored regularly during treatment. Patients with acute renal failure should not be given acetohydroxamic acid.
Pregnancy.Studies in animals indicate that acetohydroxamic acid is teratogenic.
Acetohydroxamic acid chelates iron given orally, resulting in reduced absorption of both. Ingestion with alcohol may precipitate skin rash.
Acetohydroxamic acid is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with peak serum concentrations being reached within 1 hour. The plasma half-life is reported to be up to 10 hours, but may be longer in patients with impaired renal function. Acetohydroxamic acid is partially metabolised to acetamide, which is inactive; up to about two-thirds of a dose may be excreted unchanged in the urine.
💊 Uses and Administration
Acetohydroxamic acid acts by inhibiting bacterial urease, thus decreasing urinary ammonia concentration and alkalinity. It is used in the prophylaxis of struvite renal calculi and as an adjunct in the treatment of chronic urinary-tract infections. Acetohydroxamic acid is given orally in a usual dose of 250 mg three or four times daily. The total dose should not exceed 1.5 g daily. Children have been given 10 mg/kg daily in 2 or 3 divided doses. Dosage should be adjusted in patients with renal impairment (see below).
Administration in renal impairment.Acetohydroxamic acid should not be given to patients with serum-creatinine concentrations in excess of about 220 micromoles/litre. If the concentration is between 160 and 220 micromoles/litre, the maximum daily dose should be 1 g and the dosing interval should be extended to every 12 hours.
USP 31: Acetohydroxamic Acid Tablets.
Proprietary PreparationsSpain: Uronefrex; USA: Lithostat.
Published October 10, 2018.