Ethinylestradiol

(BAN, rINN)
Ethinylestradiol Chemical formula
Synonyms: Aethinyloestradiolum; Ethinyl Estradiol; Éthinylestradiol; Ethinylestradiolum; Ethinyloestradiol; Etinilestradiol; Etinilestradiolis; Etinilöstradiol; Etinilösztradiol; Etinylestradiol; Etinyyliestradioli; Etynyloestradiol; NSC-10973. 17 3,17 ol.
Cyrillic synonym: Этинилэстрадиол.

💊 Chemical information

Chemical formula: C20H24O2 = 296.4.
CAS — 57-63-6.
ATC — G03C A01; L02AA03. ATC Vet — QG03CA01; QL02AA03.

Pharmacopoeias.

In Chin., Eur., Int., Jpn, and US.

Ph. Eur. 6.2

(Ethinylestradiol). A white to slightly yellowishwhite, crystalline powder. Practically insoluble in water; freely soluble in alcohol; dissolves in dilute alkaline solutions. Protect from light.

USP 31

(Ethinyl Estradiol). A white to creamy white, odourless, crystalline powder. Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol, in chloroform, in ether, in vegetable oils, and in solutions of fixed alkali hydroxides. Store in nonmetallic airtight containers. Protect from light.

💊 Adverse Effects and Precautions

As for oestrogens in general. See also under Hormonal Contraceptives.

Effects on calcium homoeostasis.

Two patients with metastatic breast cancer given ethinylestradiol developed rapidly progressive irreversible and fatal hypercalcaemia, considered to be due to stimulation of osteolysis by the oestrogen.1
1. Cornbleet M, et al. Fatal irreversible hypercalcaemia in breast cancer. BMJ 1977; 1: 145.

Effects on the liver.

Cholestasis and pruritus developed in a liver transplant recipient receiving ethinylestradiol at a dose of 50 micrograms daily for the treatment of menorrhagia.1 Symptoms subsided on withdrawal of ethinylestradiol but returned on its re-introduction.
1. Fedorkow DM, et al. Cholestasis induced by oestrogen after liver transplantation. BMJ 1989; 299: 1080–1.

💊 Interactions

See under Hormonal Contraceptives.
1. Zhang H, et al. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions involving 17α-ethinylestradiol: a new look at an old drug. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46: 133–57.

💊 Pharmacokinetics

Ethinylestradiol is rapidly and well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of an ethinyl group at the 17-position greatly reduces hepatic first-pass metabolism compared with estradiol, enabling the compound to be much more active by mouth, but there is some initial conjugation by the gut wall, and the systemic bioavailability is only about 40%. Ethinylestradiol is highly protein bound, but unlike naturally occurring oestrogens, which are mainly bound to sexhormone binding globulin, it is principally bound to albumin. It is metabolised in the liver, initially by aromatic hydroxylation catalysed by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4, to form 2-hydroxyethinylestradiol and various conjugated metabolites. These are excreted in urine and faeces. Metabolites undergo enterohepatic recycling.
1. Back DJ, et al. The gut wall metabolism of ethinyloestradiol and its contribution to the pre-systemic metabolism of ethinyloestradiol in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1982; 13: 325–30
2. Guengerich FP. Metabolism of 17 α-ethynylestradiol in humans. Life Sci 1990; 47: 1981–8
3. van den Heuvel MW, et al. Comparison of ethinylestradiol pharmacokinetics in three hormonal contraceptive formulations: the vaginal ring, the transdermal patch and an oral contraceptive. Contraception 2005; 72: 168–74.

💊 Uses and Administration

Ethinylestradiol is a synthetic oestrogen with actions similar to those of estradiol. It is frequently used as the oestrogenic component of combined oral contraceptive preparations; a typical daily dose is 20 to 40 micrograms. Ethinylestradiol betadex clathrate has been used similarly in combined oral contraceptives. Ethinylestradiol is also used in a combined contraceptive transdermal patch. A dose of 20 micrograms ethinylestradiol is released daily with norelgestromin. A new patch is applied each week for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle. Oestrogen exposure from such a patch may be higher than with a comparable oral contraceptive. A combined contraceptive vaginal ring device delivering an average of 15 micrograms ethinylestradiol daily with etonogestrel is also available; it remains in the vagina for 3 weeks and is then removed for a one-week break, after which a new ring is inserted. Ethinylestradiol has also been used orally as an emergency contraceptive combined with levonorgestrel or norgestrel. A combined preparation of ethinylestradiol with the anti-androgen cyproterone is used for the hormonal treatment of acne and hirsutism, particularly when contraception is also required. Ethinylestradiol has also been used for menopausal HRT, although natural oestrogens are usually preferred. Oral doses of 10 to 50 micrograms daily have been given cyclically (with a progestogen in women with a uterus), but preparations providing lower doses of 2.5 or 5 micrograms daily are also available. For the treatment of female hypogonadism, doses of 10 to 50 micrograms daily on a cyclical basis have been used. For the palliative treatment of prostate cancer doses of 150 micrograms to 3 mg have been given daily. For palliation of malignant neoplasms of the breast in postmenopausal women doses of 100 micrograms to 1 mg three times daily have been used.

Administration in children.

Although unlicensed in the UK for use in children, the BNFC does include doses of ethinylestradiol. An initial oral dose of 2 micrograms daily may be used in the management of delayed puberty in girls. This may be increased every 6 months to 5 micrograms, then to 10 micrograms, then to 20 micrograms daily, according to response. After 12 to 18 months of treatment, a progestogen should be added for 7 days of each 28-day cycle. A daily dose of ethinylestradiol 20 micrograms with cyclical progestogen may then be used to maintain sexual maturation. For the prevention of constitutional tall stature, ethinylestradiol may be given to girls aged 2 to 12 years old in a dose of 20 to 50 micrograms daily. Growth hormone provocation testing may be used in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in children with growth retardation. However, the response can be blunted in prepubertal and peripubertal children, resulting in false negative results. Hormonal pituitary priming using ethinylestradiol has been tried in both boys and girls in order to increase responsiveness to the test,1,2 although there appears to be no consensus on such use.3 The BNFC includes an oral dose of 100 micrograms daily for 3 days before the test, for girls with a bone age above 10 years.
1. Loche S, et al. The growth hormone response to hexarelin in children: reproducibility and effect of sex steroids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 861–4
2. Coutant R, et al. Body composition, fasting leptin, and sex steroid administration determine GH sensitivity in peripubertal short children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 5805–12
3. Growth Hormone Research Society. Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in childhood and adolescence: summary statement of the GH Research Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 3990–3. Also available at: http://www.ghresearchsociety.org/files/Eilat.pdf (accessed 22/08/08)

💊 Preparations

BP 2008: Ethinylestradiol Tablets; Levonorgestrel and Ethinylestradiol Tablets; USP 31: Desogestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets; Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets; Ethynodiol Diacetate and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets; Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets; Norethindrone Acetate and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets; Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets; Norgestimate and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets; Norgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets.

Proprietary Preparations

Arg.: Diva Total; Austria: Progynon C†; Cz.: Minerva; Ger.: Progynon C†; Turisteron†; Hung.: Mikrofollin†; India: Lynoral; Indon.: Lynoral; Israel: Progynon C†; Neth.: Lynoral; Port.: Jeanine; Rus.: Microfollin (Микрофоллин); S.Afr.: Estinyl†; Swed.: Diane; Switz.: Elleacnelle; Thai.: Manodiol; USA: Estinyl. Multi-ingredient: Arg.: Afrodita; Aleli; Anubis; April; Avancel; Biofem; Biofem 35; Cilest; Cuarcic; Cuidafem; Damsel; Diane; Diva; Divina; Dos Dias N; Evelea; Evra; Femexin; Femiane; Ginelea; Ginelea T; Gynovin; Harmonet; Isis; Isis Fe; Kala; Kirumelle; Lindiol†; Livianne; Loette; Lutogynestryl; Marvelon; Maxima; Mercilon; Mesconcept; Microfem; Microgynon; Microvlar; Mileva; Minesse; Minulet; Miranova; Mirelle; Neogynon; Nordette; Nordiol†; Norgestrel Minor; Norgestrel Plus; Ovral†; Secret 28; Tridestan N; Tridette; Trinordiol; Triquilar; Venisse; Yasmin; Yasminelle; Austral.: Biphasil†; Brenda-35 ED; Brevinor; Diane; Estelle; Femoden ED; Improvil; Juliet†; Levlen ED; Loette; Logynon ED; Marvelon; Microgynon; Microlevlen ED; Minulet; Monofeme; Nordette; Nordiol†; Norimin; NuvaRing; Sequilar ED; Synphasic; Tri-Minulet†; Trifeme; Trioden; Triphasil; Triquilar; Valette; Yasmin; Austria: Bellgyn; Cileste; Dialuna; Diane; Donnina; FemHRT†; Femogyn; Gracial; Gynovin; Harmonette; Jeanine; Laurina; Liberel; Loette; Madonella; Marvelon; Meliane; Mercilon; Microgynon; Midane; Minerva; Minesse; Minulet; Mirelle; Myvlar; Neo-Stediril; Neogynon†; NuvaRing; Ovranette; Ovysmen; Perikursal; Primosiston; Sequilar; Stediril D; Sterigynon; Tri-Minulet; TriCilest; Trigynon; Trinordiol; Trinovum; Triodena; Valette; Vivelle; Xylia; Yasmin; Yirala; Yris; Belg.: Binordiol†; Cilest; Claudia; Co-Cyproterone; Cyprodiol; Daphne; Desorelle; Diane; Doccyproestra; Evra; Femodene; Gestodelle; Gestofeme; Gracial; Gratiella; Harmonet; Lowette; Marvelon; Meliane; Mercilon; Merckelisa; Microgynon; Minestril†; Minulet; Mirelle; Neo-Stediril†; Neogynon†; NuvaRing; Ovidol; Ovysmen; Ratiopharmeva; Stediril 30; Stediril D†; Tri-Minulet; Trigynon; Trinordiol; Trinovum; Triodene; Yasmin; Braz.: Adoless; Alexa; Allestra; Anacyclin†; Anfertil; Artemidis; Ciclo; Ciclofemme; Ciclon†; Ciclovulon; Ciprane; Concepnor; Diane; Diminut; Elani; Evanor; Evra; Femiane; Femina; Ferane 35; Fertnon; Gestinol; Gestradiol; Gestrelan; Ginesse; Gracial; Gynera; Harmonet; Level; Levordiol; Lovelle; Malu; Mercilon; Mercilon Conti; Microdiol; Micropil; Microvlar; Minesse; Minian; Minima; Minulet; Mirelle; Neovlar; Nociclin; Nordette; Normamor; Novial; NuvaRing; Ovoresta; Previane; Primera; Primosiston; Repopil; Selene; Siblima; Tamisa; Tess; Trinordiol; Trinovum†; Triquilar; Yasmin; YAZ; Canad.: Alesse; Brevicon; Cyclen; Demulen; Diane; Evra; FemHRT; Loestrin 1.5/30; Marvelon; Min-Ovral; Minestrin; NuvaRing; Ortho 0.5/35; Ortho 1/35; Ortho 7/7/7; Ortho-Cept; Ovral; Select 1/35; Synphasic; TriCyclen; Triphasil; Triquilar; Yasmin; Chile: Alesse; Anovulatorio Micro-Dosis; Anuar; Anulette; Belara; Careza; Ciclidon; Ciclomex; Dahlia; Dal; Desoren; Diane; Dixi-35; Drina; Evilin; Evra; Farlutal Estrogeno†; Femelle; Feminol; Femitres; Gracial; Gynera; Gynostat; Harmonet; Innova Cd; Lady-Ten 35; Loette†; Lovinda; Mactex; Marvelon; Microfemin†; Microgen; Microgynon; Midalet; Minesse; Miniestrel; Minigest; Minulet; Mirelle; Modutrol; Neofam; Neolette; Nordette; Nordiol; Norvetal; NuvaRing; Orlon; Primosiston; Tri-Ciclomex; Tri-Mactex; Trifas†; Trinordiol; Triquilar; Trolit; Yasmin; Cz.: Anteovin†; Belanette; Belara; Chloe; Cilest; Diane; Evra; Femoden; Gracial; Gravistat; Harmonet; Jeanine; Jenetten†; Katya; Laurina; Lindynette; Loette; Logest; Lunafem; Marvelon; Mercilon; Microgynon; Milligest; Milvane†; Minesse; Minisiston; Minulet; Mirelle; Non-Ovlon†; Novynette; NuvaRing; Pramino; Regulon; Restovar†; Stediril†; Sunya; Tri-Minulet; Tri-Regol; Trinordiol; Trinovum; Triquilar; Trisiston†; Vilonet†; Vreya; Yadine; Yasminelle; Denm.: Cilest; Desorelle; Diane; Dianova; Econ†; Evra; Feminil; Fironetta†; Gestonette; Gracial; Gynatrol†; Gynera; Harmonet; Lindynette; Malonetta; Marvelon; Meloden; Mercilon; Microgyn; Milvane; Minulet; Neogentrol†; Neogynon; Novynette; NuvaRing; Tetragynon†; Tri-Minulet†; Triminetta; Tr inordiol ; Tr inovum; Triquilar ; Yasmin; Fin.: Cilest; Cypretyl; Diane; Evra; Femoden; Gracial; Harmonet; Marvelon; Meliane; Mercilon; Microgynon; Minulet; Mirelle; Neo-Primovlar†; NuvaRing; Tri-Femoden; TriMinu let†; Trikvilar ; Tr i nordiol†; Yasmin; Fr.: Adepal; Belara; Cilest; Cycleane; Daily; Diane; Effiprev; Evepar; Evra; Harmonet; Holgyeme; Jasmine; Jasminelle; Ludeal; Lumalia; Meliane; Melodia; Mercilon; Minerva; Minesse; Minidril; Miniphase; Minulet; Moneva; NuvaRing; Ortho-Novum 1/35; Phaeva; Planor†; Stediril; Tetragynon†; Tri-Minulet; Triafemi; TriCilest; Triella; Trinordiol; Varnoline; Ger.: Attempta; Balanca; Belara; Bella; Biviol; Cilest; Clevia; Conceplan M; Cyclosa; Cyproderm; Cypronette; Desmin; Diane; Ergalea; Eve; Evra; Femigoa; Femovan; Femranette mikro†; Gravistat; Juliette; Lamuna; Leios; Lovelle; Lyn-ratiopharm-Sequenz; Marvelon; Microgynon; Minisiston; Minulet; Miranova; MonoStep; Neo-Eunomin; Neo-Stediril†; Neogynon†; Non-Ovlon†; Nora-ratiopharm†; NovaStep; Novial; NuvaRing; Ostro-Primolut†; Oviol; Ovoresta M; Ovysmen†; Perikursal†; Petibelle; Pramino; Primosiston†; Prosiston†; Sequilar†; Sequostat†; Sinovula†; Stediril 30†; Stediril D†; Stediril†; Synphasec; Tetragynon†; Triette†; Trigoa; Trinordiol†; Trinovum; Triquilar; Trisiston; TriStep†; Valette; Yasmin; Gr.: Evra; Gracial; Gynera; Gynofen 35; Harmonette; Laurina; Loette; Marvelon; Meliane; Mercilon; Minulet; Neogynon†; Nordette†; Nordiol†; NuvaRing; Ovral†; Tri-Minulet; Trigynera; Trinordiol†; Triquilar†; Yasmin; Hong Kong: Brevinor; Diane; Eugynon; Evra; Gracial; Gynera; Harmonet; Marvelon; Meliane; Mercilon; Microgynon; Minulet†; Neogynon†; Nordette; Norimin†; Novynette; Rigevidon; Synphase†; Tri-Regol; Trinordiol†; Trinovum†; Triquilar†; Yasmin; Hung.: Anteovin; Belara; Cilest; Cypromix; Diane; Evra; Femoden; Gracial; Harmonet; Lindynette; Loette; Marvelon; Meliane; Mercilon; Milligest; Minerva; Minesse; Minulet; Miranova†; Novynette; NuvaRing; Ovidon; Regulon; Rigevidon; Tri-Minulet†; Tri-Regol; Trinordiol; Triodena; Triquilar; Yadine; Yasminelle; India: Diane; Duoluton-L; Femilon; Ginette; Mixogen; Novelon; Ovilow†; Ovipauz-L†; Ovral; Triquilar; Indon.: Diane; Gynera; Marvelon; Mercilon; Microdiol; Microgynon; Pil Keluarga Berencana; Planak; Trinordiol; Triquilar; Yasmin; Irl.: Brevinor; Cilest; Dianette; Evra; Femodene†; Logynon; Marviol; Mercilon; Microgynon 30†; Microlite; Minulet; NuvaRing; Ovran†; Ovranette; Tri-Minulet; Trinordiol; Triodene†; Yasmin; Israel: Belara; Diane; Estelle; Evra; Feminet; Gynera; Harmonet; Logynon†; Meliane; Mercilon; Microdiol; Microgynon; Minesse; Minulet; Neogynon†; Nordette; Ortho Cyclen; Trinordiol†; Yasmin; Ital.: Arianna; Belara; Diane; Dueva; Egogyn; Eugynon†; Evanor-D†; Evra; Fedra; Ginoden; Gracial; Harmonet; Loette; Mercilon; Microgynon; Milvane; Minesse; Minulet; Miranova; Novogyn; NuvaRing; Ovranet†; Planum; Practil; Securgin; TriMinulet; Trigynon; Trinordiol†; Visofid; Yasmin; Jpn: Ange; Ortho 777; Malaysia: Diane; Estelle; Gynera; Lindynette; Loette; Marvelon; Meliane; Mercilon; Microgynon 30; Minulet; Nordette; Novynette; Regulon; Rigevidon; Tri-Regol†; Trinordiol; Triquilar†; Yasmin; Mex.: Alesse; Belara; Cilest; Diane; Eunice 35-ED; Evra; Femexin; Ginelea; Gynovin; Letinnov; Marvelon; Mercilon; Microgynon; Mileva; Minesse; Minulet; Neogynon; Nordet; Nordiol; Novial; NuvaRing; Ortho-Novum 1/35; Ovral; Secret 28; Trinordiol; Triquilar; Yasmin; Neth.: Alesse; Belanette; Cilest; Diane; Evra; Femodeen; Gracial; Harmonet†; Levlen†; Logynon; Lovette; Lyndiol†; Marvelon; Meliane; Mercilon; Microgynon; Ministat; Minulet; Miranova; Modicon; Neocon; Neogynon; NuvaRing; Ovidol; Ovostat†; Rigevidon; Stediril; Tri-Minulet†; Trigynon; Trinordiol; Trinovum; Triodeen; Yasmin; Yasminelle; Yira; Norw.: Diane; Evra; Follimin†; Loette; Marvelon; Microgynon; NuvaRing; Synfase; Tetragynon†; Trinordiol; Trionetta; Yasmin; NZ: Brevinor; Diane; Estelle; Femodene; Levlen ED; Loette; Marvelon; Melodene; Mercilon; Microgynon; Minulet; Monofeme; Nordette; Nordiol†; Norimin; Ovral†; Synphasic; Trifeme; Trimiron†; Triphasil; Triquilar; Yasmin; Philipp.: Althea; Diane; Evra; Femenal; Gracial; Gynera; Lady; Logynon; Marvelon; Meliane; Mercilon; Microgynon; Micropil; Minulet; Nordette; Nordiol; Rigevidon; Seif; Trinordiol; Trust Pill; Yasmin; Pol.: Anteovin; Cilest; Cyprest; Diane; Evra; Femoden; Gravistat; Harmonet; Jeanine; Logest; Marvelon; Mercilon; Microgynon; Milvane; Minisiston; Minulet; Mirelle; Novynette; Regulon; Rigevidon; Stediril; Tri-Minulet; Tri-Regol; Trinordiol; Trinovum; Triquilar; Trisiston; Yasmin; Yasminelle; Port.: Belara; Diane; Effiplen; Estinette; Evra; Femphascyl†; Gracial; Gynera; Harmonet; Laurina; Libeli; Marvelon; Mercilon; Microgeste; Microginon; Minesse; Minigeste; Minulet; Miranova; Neomonovar†; Novynette; NuvaRing; Petibelle; Regulon; Tetragynon; Tri-Gynera; Tri-Minulet; Trinordiol; Triquilar; Valette; Yasmin; Yasminelle; Rus.: Anteovin (Антеовин); Belara (Белара); Cilest (Силест); Diane (Диане); Evra (Евра); Femoden (Фемоден); Jeanine (Жанин); Lindynette (Линдинет); Logest (Логест); Marvelon (Марвелон); Mercilon (Мерсилон); Microgynon (Микрогинон); Minisiston (Минизистон); NonOvlon (Нон-овлон); Novynette (Новинет); NuvaRing (НоваРинг); Ovidon (Овидон); Regulon (Регулон); Rigevidon (Ригевидон); Tri-Merci (Три-Мерси); Tri-Regol (Три-Регол); Triquilar (Триквилар); Trisiston (Тризистон); Yarina (Ярина); S.Afr.: Biphasil; Brevinor†; Cilest; Diane; Diva; E-Gen-C; Evra; Femodene ED; Ginette; Harmonet; Loette; Logynon ED; Marvelon; Melodene; Menoflush; Mercilon; Minerva; Minesse; Minulette; Miranova; Mirelle; Nordette; Nordiol; Ovral; Tri-Minulet; TriCilest; Trinovum; Triodene; Triphasil; Yasmin; Singapore: Diane; Estelle; Evra; Gynera; Loette; Marvelon; Meliane; Mercilon; Microgynon; Minulet; Nordette; Trinordiol; Triquilar†; Yasmin; Spain: Belara; Diane; Evra; Gracial; Gynovin; Harmonet; Loette; Meliane; Melodene 15; Microdiol; Microgynon; Minesse; Minulet; Neogynona; NuvaRing; Ovoplex; Suavuret; Tri-Minulet; Triagynon; Triciclor; Trigynovin; Yasmin; Yira†; Swed.: Cilest; Desolett; Evra; Follimin; Follinett; Mercilon; Neovletta; NuvaRing; Orthonett Novum; Restovar; Synfase; Trimiron; Trinordiol; Trinovum; Trionetta; Triregol; Yasmin; Switz.: Belara; Binordiol†; Cilest; Cypestra; Diane; Evra; Feminac; Gracial; Gynera; Harmonet; Marvelon; Meloden; Mercilon; Microgynon; Milvane; Minerva; Minesse; Minulet; Miranova; Mirelle; Neogynon†; NuvaRing; Ologyn; Ovysmen; Primosiston; Stediril 30; Stediril D; Tetragynon; Tri-Minulet; Trinordiol; Trinovum; Triquilar; Yasmin; Thai.: Anna†; Cilest; Diane; Eugynon 250†; Evra; FMP†; Gynera; Helen†; Hormone Multicap†; Horon†; Jeny-FMP†; Lady-35; Lyndiol†; Manoane; Marvelon; Meliane; Mercilon; Microgest; Microgynon; Microlenyn; Minulet†; Nordette; Oilezz; Preme†; R-Den†; Riget; Rigevidon; Sucee; TriCilest; Triquilar; Yasmin; Turk.: Desolett; Diane; Ginera; Lo-Ovral; Microgynon; Minulet; Miranova; Myralon; Preven; Triquilar; Yasmin; UK: Acnocin; Binovum; Brevinor; Cicafem; Cilest; Clairette; Dianette; Diva; Eugynon 30†; Evra; Femodene; Femodette; Katya; Loestrin; Logynon; Marvelon; Mercilon; Microgynon 30; Minulet†; Norimin; Ovran 30; Ovranette; Ovysmen; Sunya; Synphase; Tri-Minulet†; Triadene; Trinordiol†; Trinovum; Yasmin; USA: Alesse; Apri; Aranelle; Aviane; Balziva; Brevicon; Cesia; Cryselle; Cyclessa; Demulen†; Desogen; Enpresse; Estrostep Fe; Estrostep†; Femcon Fe; FemHRT; Jolessa; Junel Fe; Kariva; Kelnor; Leena; Lessina; Levlen; Levlite; Levora; Lo/Ovral; Loestrin; Loestrin Fe; Lutera; Lybrel; Mircette; Modicon; Necon 10/11; Necon 0.5/35, 1/35; NEE 1/35; Nordette; Norinyl 1 + 35; NuvaRing; Ortho Cyclen; Ortho Evra; Ortho Tri-Cyclen; Ortho-Cept; Ortho-Novum 1/35; Ortho-Novum 10/11; Or tho-Novum 7/7/7; Ovcon 35; Ovcon 50; Ovral; Portia; Preven†; Previfem; Quasense; Reclipsen; Seasonale; Seasonique; Solia; Sprintec; Sronyx; Tilia Fe; Tri-Leges t; Tr i-Levlen; Tr i -Nor inyl; Tri-Prev ifem; Tri-Sprinte c ; Tr iNes sa; Triphasil; Trivora; Velivet; Yasmin; YAZ; Zenchent; Zovia; Venez.: Alesse; Belara; Ciclidon; Diane; Dixi; Evra; Femiane; Gynera; Harmonet; Marvelon; Mercilon; Minesse; Minigynon; Minulet; Mipil; Mirelle; Neogynon; Nordette; Nordiol; Novial; Ortrel; Ovral; Primosiston†; Rigevidon; Tri-Regol; Trinordiol; Triquilar; Yasmin.
Published December 15, 2018.