Maltose

(BAN)
Maltose Chemical formula

💊 Chemical information

D-maltose; Maltobiose; Maltosa. 4OαD-GlucopyranosylβDglucopyranose.
Chemical formula: C12H22O11 = 342.3.
CAS — 69-79-4 (anhydrous maltose); 6363-53-7 (maltose monohydrate).

Pharmacopoeias.

Jpn includes the monohydrate. USNF permits the anhydrous and monohydrate forms.

USNF 26

(Maltose). It contains one molecule of water of hydration or is anhydrous. A white, odourless, crystalline powder that has a sweet taste. Freely soluble in water; very soluble in dehydrated alcohol; practically insoluble in ether; slightly soluble in methyl alcohol. pH of a 10% solution in water is between 3.7 and 4.7 (anhydrous form) and between 4.0 and 5.5 (monohydrate form).

💊 Profile

Maltose, a disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules, is less sweet than sucrose. It is obtained from starch by hydrolysis with amylase. Maltose is often present with other sugars in mixtures used as carbohydrate sources. It is also used as a pharmaceutical excipient.

Adverse effects.

Hyponatraemia developed after intravenous infusion of normal immunoglobulin in 10% maltose in a patient with acute renal failure after liver transplantation.1 The effect, which recurred on each of four successive infusions, resembled that of hyperglycaemia and was thought to be due to accumulation of maltose and other osmotically active metabolites in the extracellular fluid.
1. Palevsky PM, et al. Maltose-induced hyponatremia. Ann Intern Med 1993; 118: 526–8.

Precautions.

Preparations that contain, or are metabolised to, maltose may interfere with the results from glucose tests. Overestimation of glucose results may mask hypoglycaemia, resulting in the inappropriate use of insulin.1,2 The problem may also occur with icodextrin, which produces maltose as a metabolite.
1. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Medical device alert: ref MDA/2007/058 issued 19 July 2007. Available at: http://www.mhra.gov.uk/PrintPreview/PublicationSP/ CON2031807 (accessed 01/07/08
2. FDA. Important safety information on interference with blood glucose measurement following use of parenteral maltose/parenteral galactose/oral xylose-containing products (issued November 2005). Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cber/ safety/maltose110405.htm (accessed 01/07/08)

💊 Preparations

USNF 26: Liquid Glucose.

Proprietary Preparations

Indon.: Martos; Jpn: Martos. Multi-ingredient: Fr.: Picot†.
Published January 15, 2019.