Biotin

(rINN)
Biotin Chemical formula
Synonyms: Biotiini; Biotina; Biotinas; Biotine; Biotinum; Coenzyme R; Vitamin H. cis-5-(Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4d]imidazol-4-yl)valeric acid.
Cyrillic synonym: Биотин.

💊 Chemical information

Chemical formula: C10H16N2O3S = 244.3.
CAS — 58-85-5.
ATC — A11HA05.
ATC Vet — QA11HA05.

Pharmacopoeias.

In Eur. and US.

Ph. Eur. 6.2

(Biotin). A white or almost white, crystalline powder or colourless crystals. Very slightly soluble in water and in alcohol; practically insoluble in acetone. It dissolves in dilute solutions of alkali hydroxides. Protect from light.

USP 31

(Biotin). A practically white crystalline powder. Very slightly soluble in water and in alcohol; insoluble in other common organic solvents. Store in airtight containers.

💊 Profile

Biotin is traditionally considered to be a vitamin B substance. It is an essential coenzyme in fat metabolism and in other carboxylation reactions. Biotin deficiency may result in the urinary excretion of organic acids and changes in skin and hair. Deficiency of biotin is very unlikely in man because of its widespread distribution in food. Egg-yolk and offal are especially good sources. Biotin deficiency has been reported however during long-term parenteral nutrition and in patients with biotinidase deficiency, an inherited metabolic disorder. For dosage in biotinidase or isolated carboxylase deficiency see below. A combination of biotin and chromium tripicolinate has been promoted as an adjunct for the management of diabetes mellitus. Biotin combines with avidin, a glycoprotein present in raw eggwhite, to form an inactive compound.

Adverse effects.

For reference to life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericarditis in a patient receiving biotin and pantothenic acid.

Deficiency states.

Biotin has been used to treat deficiency of biotinidase or holocarboxylase synthetase, enzymes responsible for the recycling and incorporation of biotin. In the UK, the BNFC suggests the following doses:
for isolated carboxylase defects, biotin may be given to neonates in a dose of 5 mg once daily by mouth or slow intravenous injection, adjusted according to response; older patients may be given 10 mg daily. The usual maintenance dose ranges from 10 to 50 mg daily, though up to 100 mg daily may be needed
for defects of biotin metabolism, 10 mg once daily may be given by mouth or slow intravenous injection, adjusted according to response. Usual maintenance doses are 5 to 20 mg daily but higher doses may be needed References.
1. Baumgartner ER, Suormala T. Multiple carboxylase deficiency: inherited and acquired disorders of biotin metabolism. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1997; 67: 377–84
2. Tsao CY, Kien CL. Complete biotinidase deficiency presenting as reversible progressive ataxia and sensorineural deafness. J Child Neurol 2002; 17: 146
3. Wolf B. Biotinidase deficiency: new directions and practical concerns. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2003; 5: 321–8
4. Seymons K, et al. Dermatologic signs of biotin deficiency leading to the diagnosis of multiple carboxylase deficiency. Pediatr Dermatol 2004; 21: 231–5
5. Grünewald S, et al. Biotinidase deficiency: a treatable leukoencephalopathy. Neuropediatrics 2004; 35: 211–16
6. Puertas Bordallo D, et al. Neuropatía óptica por déficit de biotinidasa. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2004; 79: 393–6
7. Hoffman TL, et al. Biotinidase deficiency: the importance of adequate follow-up for an inconclusive newborn screening result. Eur J Pediatr 2005; 164: 298–301
8. Wilson CJ, et al. Severe holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency with incomplete biotin responsiveness resulting in antenatal insult in Samoan neonates. J Pediatr 2005; 147: 115–18.

Human requirements.

In the UK neither a reference nutrient intake (RNI) nor an estimated average requirement has been set for biotin although it was considered that an intake of between 10 and 200 micrograms daily was both safe and adequate.1 Similarly in the USA an adequate intake of 30 micrograms daily has been set for adults.2
1. DoH. Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom: report of the panel on dietary reference values of the committee on medical aspects of food policy. Report on health and social subject
41. London: HMSO, 1991
2. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes of the Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B , folate, vitamin B , pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Also available at: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309065542 (accessed 21/07/08)

💊 Preparations

Proprietary Preparations

Arg.: Aminosam; Panabiotin; Austria: Bio-H-Tin; Curatin; Medobiotin; Merzbiotin; Canad.: D Biotin†; Chile: Hvit; Fin.: Biotisan; Ger.: Bio-H-Tin; Biokur†; Biotin-Asmedic; Deacura; Gabunat; Medobiotin†; Natubiotin; Natuderm†; Rombellin†; Hung.: Bio-H-Tin; Ital.: Biodermatin; Diathynil; Nebiotin; Spain: Medebiotin; Switz.: Bio-H-Tin; Rombellin; USA: Appearex; Hard Nails. Multi-ingredient: Arg.: Folimax B; Megaplus; Tersoderm Anticaspa†; Fr.: Zeniac LP†; Zeniac†; Ger.: Carotin; Indon.: Alicron; Spain: Doctodermis; Lacerdermol.
Published October 26, 2018.