Glutathione

(BAN)
Glutathione Chemical formula

💊 Chemical information

Glutathion; Glutathionum; Glutatión; Glutation; Glutationas; Glutationi; GSH.
Chemical formula: N-(NC10H17N3O6S = 307.3.
CAS — 70-18-8.
ATC — V0 3AB32.
ATC Vet — QV0 3AB32.

Pharmacopoeias.

In Eur. and Jpn..

Ph. Eur. 6.2

(Glutathione). Fermentation product. A white or almost white, crystalline powder or colourless crystals. Freely soluble in water; very slightly soluble in alcohol and in dichloromethane. Protect from light.

💊 Profile

Glutathione is an endogenous peptide with antoxidant and other metabolic functions. Glutathione and glutathione sodium are used to prevent neurotoxicity associated with cisplatin or oxaliplatin; they have also been used to prevent other adverse effects of antineoplastic and radiation therapy, as well as in a wide range of other disorders including poisoning with heavy metals and other compounds, liver disorders, corneal disorders, and eczema. Glutathione has also been tried in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and peripheral vascular disorders.

Antineoplastic toxicity.

Glutathione has been reported to reduce the incidence of neurotoxicity induced by cisplatin therapy. In a double-blind, randomised trial1 in 50 patients receiving cisplatin for advanced gastric cancer, glutathione significantly reduced the incidence of neuropathy assessed within one week of completing cisplatin therapy. There did not appear to be any reduction in cytotoxic activity. Similar benefit was observed in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 52 patients receiving oxaliplatin.2
1. Cascinu S, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 1995; 13: 26–32
2. Cascinu S, et al. Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20: 3478–83.

Lung disorders.

Glutathione is an important extracellular antoxidant in the lung and high concentrations are found in lung epithelial lining fluid. A deficiency of glutathione may contribute to the epithelial damage that occurs in various lung disorders, and treatment with nebulised glutathione has therefore been investigated. Small studies have found beneficial biochemical results in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis)1 and in cystic fibrosis,2 but the clinical effects of these changes are not clear. Another study in cystic fibrosis3 found no effect on oxidative markers after treatment for 2 weeks, but there was a small improvement in lung function. Benefit has also been reported4 in a patient with emphysema. However, in a study5 of patients with mild asthma, inhalation of glutathione solution was associated with bronchoconstriction, leading to cough or breathlessness in some patients, possibly due to sulfite formation.
1. Borok Z, et al. Effect of glutathione aerosol on oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Lancet 1991; 338: 215–16
2. Roum JH, et al. Glutathione aerosol suppresses lung epithelial surface inflammatory cell-derived oxidants in cystic fibrosis. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87: 438–43
3. Griese M, et al. Improvement of alveolar glutathione and lung function but not oxidative state in cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004; 169: 822–8
4. Lamson DW, Brignall MS. The use of nebulized glutathione in the treatment of emphysema: a case report. Altern Med Rev 2000; 5: 429–31
5. Marrades RM, et al. Nebulized glutathione induces bronchoconstriction in patients with mild asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997; 156: 425–30.

💊 Preparations

Proprietary Preparations

Hong Kong: Glu-tathion; TAD; Ital.: Eudon†; Glutanil†; Gluthion; Ipatox†; Maglut†; Reglumax†; Ridutox; Rition; Scavenger†; TAD; Tationil; Thioxene†; Jpn: Glutathin; Rus.: Glutoxim (Глутоксим); USA: Cachexon. Multi-ingredient: Austral.: BSS Plus; Austria: BSS Plus; Canad.: BSS Plus; Fr.: BSS Plus; Ger.: BSS Plus; Hong Kong: BSS Plus†; Hung.: BSS Plus; Israel: BSS Plus; Malaysia: BSS Plus; Philipp.: Illumina; S.Afr.: BSS Plus; Singapore: BSS Plus; Switz.: BSS Plus†; Thai.: BSS Plus; USA: BSS Plus; Sucrets Defense Kids Formula; Venez.: BSS Plus†.
Published November 17, 2018.