Nitrofurazone

(BAN)
Nitrofurazone Chemical formula
Synonyms: Nitrofural (pINN); Furacilinum; Nitrofuraali; Nitrofurál; Nitrofuralis; Nitrofuralum; Nitrofuratsoni; Nitrofurazon; Nitrofurazonum. 5-Nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone.
Cyrillic synonym: Нитрофурал.

💊 Chemical information

Chemical formula: C6H6N4O4 = 198.1.
CAS — 59-87-0.
ATC — B05CA03; D08AF01; D09AA03; P01CC02; S01AX04; S02AA02.
ATC Vet — QB05CA03; QD08AF01; QD09AA03; QG01AX90; QP51AC02; QS01AX04; QS02AA02.

Pharmacopoeias.

In Eur. and US.

Ph. Eur. 6.2

(Nitrofural; Nitrofurazone BP 2008). A yellow or brownish-yellow, crystalline powder. Very slightly soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol. The filtrate from a 1% suspension in water has a pH of 5.0 to 7.0. Protect from light.

USP 31

(Nitrofurazone). A lemon-yellow, odourless crystalline powder. It darkens slowly on exposure to light. Soluble 1 in 4200 of water, 1 in 590 of alcohol, and 1 in 350 of propylene glycol; practically insoluble in chloroform and in ether; soluble in dimethylformamide; slightly soluble in polyethylene glycol mixtures. The filtrate from a 1% suspension in water has a pH of 5.0 to 7.5. Store in airtight containers at a temperature not exceeding 40°. Protect from light.

Sterilisation.

Autoclaving gauze dressings impregnated with nitrofurazone, as recommended by the US manufacturer, resulted in a greater than 10% loss of the drug. 1 Since the spectroscopic assay used may not distinguish between nitrofurazone and some of its degradation products, the degree of degradation may have been greater than this. 1. Phillips C, Fisher E. Effect of autoclaving on stability of nitrofurazone soluble dressing. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1996; 53: 1169–71.

💊 Adverse Effects

Sensitisation and generalised allergic skin reactions may be produced by topical nitrofurazone. Nitrofurazone is a toxic drug when given orally and serious adverse effects include severe peripheral neuropathy; haemolysis may occur in patients with G6PD deficiency. Nitrofurazone in high oral doses is carcinogenic in rats.

💊 Precautions

Nitrofurazone is contra-indicated in patients with known hypersensitivity. Preparations containing macrogols should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment since macrogols can be absorbed and their accumulation in such patients may result in symptoms of further impairment. Oral nitrofurazone should be used with caution in patients with G6PD deficiency because of the risk of haemolysis.

💊 Antimicrobial Action

Nitrofurazone is a nitrofuran derivative with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, but with little activity against Pseudomonas spp. It also has antitrypanosomal activity.

💊 Uses and Administration

Nitrofurazone is a nitrofuran derivative that is used topically for wounds, burns, ulcers, and skin infections, and for the preparation of surfaces before skin grafting. It is usually applied in a concentration of 0.2% in a water-soluble or water-miscible basis. A solution of nitrofurazone is used for bladder irrigation. Urinary catheters impregnated with nitrofurazone, to reduce bacterial colonisation and infection, are available in some countries.

💊 Preparations

USP 31: Nitrofurazone Ointment; Nitrofurazone Topical Solution.

Proprietary Preparations

Arg.: Furacin; Ivoran Pilot†; Nitromed; Belg.: Furacine; Braz.: Alivioderm†; Caziderm; Cleanbac†; Furacin; Sensiderme; Chile: Demodek†; Furacin; Ger.: Furacin-Sol; India: Furacin; Mex.: Furacin; Kufro; Nifurol; Probizal; Vulnizol; Neth.: Furacine; Philipp.: Furacin; Port.: Rayonfur; S.Afr.: Furacin; Furex; Germex; Spain: Furacin; Thai.: Bactacin; Mytrocin; Polycin; Turk.: Dermikolin; Furacin; Furaderm; Furazol; USA: Furacin†; Venez.: Furacin; Furfuril; Fuxal; Polifur†. Multi-ingredient: Arg.: Fadanasal; Neo Pelvicillin; O-Biol; Vagicural; Vagisan; Vagisan Compuesto; Vislus; Braz.: Nitrileno; Nitrolerg†; Otodol†; India: Furacin-S; Ital.: Furotricina; Mex.: Madecassol C; Madecassol N; Spain: Dertrase; Thai.: Denson.
Published May 08, 2019.