Enoxacin

(BAN, USAN, rINN)
Enoxacin Chemical formula
Synonyms: AT-2266; CI-919; Enoksasiini; Enoksasin; Énoxacine; Enoxacino; Enoxacinum; PD-107779. 1-Ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7(1-piperazinyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid.
Cyrillic synonym: Эноксацин.

💊 Chemical information

Chemical formula: C15H17FN4O3 = 320.3.
CAS — 74011-58-8.
ATC — J01MA04.
ATC Vet — QJ01MA04.

Pharmacopoeias.

Chin. and Jpn include the sesquihydrate.

💊 Adverse Effects and Precautions

As for Ciprofloxacin. Reduced dosage may be needed in renal impairment—see Administration in Renal Impairment, under Uses and Administration, below.

💊 Interactions

As for Ciprofloxacin. Of the fluoroquinolones, enoxacin has been reported to cause the most marked interaction with theophylline and with caffeine.

💊 Antimicrobial Action

As for Ciprofloxacin, although enoxacin is generally less potent in vitro.

💊 Pharmacokinetics

Peak plasma concentrations of 2 to 3 micrograms/mL occur 1 to 2 hours after a 400-mg oral dose of enoxacin. The plasma halflife is about 3 to 6 hours. Plasma protein binding ranges from 18 to 67%. Enoxacin appears to be widely distributed in the body and concentrations higher than those in plasma have been reported in tissues such as lung, kidney, and prostate. High concentrations are achieved in bile, but the extent of biliary excretion is not completely clear. Enoxacin is eliminated from the body mainly by urinary excretion, but also by metabolism. The major metabolite, 3-oxoenoxacin, has some antibacterial activity. Urinary excretion of enoxacin is by both tubular secretion and glomerular filtration and may be reduced by probenecid. High concentrations are achieved in the urine since about 60% of an oral dose of enoxacin appears unchanged in the urine within 24 hours; about 10% is recovered as 3-oxo-enoxacin. In renal impairment the half-life of enoxacin may be prolonged and the oxometabolite may accumulate.

💊 Uses and Administration

Enoxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial with actions and uses similar to those of ciprofloxacin. It is used mainly in the treatment of urinary-tract infections and gonorrhoea. For urinary-tract infections, enoxacin is given orally in doses of 200 to 400 mg twice daily. For details of reduced doses in renal impairment, see below. A single 400-mg dose is given for uncomplicated gonorrhoea.
1. Patel SS, Spencer CM. Enoxacin: a reappraisal of its clinical efficacy in the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. Drugs 1996; 51: 137–60.

Administration in renal impairment.

In renal impairment when the creatinine clearance is 30 mL/minute or less the urinary concentrations achieved may be too low to have a therapeutic effect in urinary-tract infections. In other infections, half the usual dose of enoxacin is recommended.

💊 Preparations

Proprietary Preparations

Austria: Enoxor; Fr.: Enoxor; Ger.: Enoxor; Ital.: Bactidan; Enoxen; Jpn: Flumark; Port.: Vinone†; S.Afr.: Bactidron†; Turk.: Enoksetin; USA: Penetrex†.
Published February 04, 2019.